Ald&ketoneI - Aldehydes and Ketones Before you can...

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Aldehydes and Ketones
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Before you can learn about aldehydes and ketones, you must first know something about the nomenclature of carboxylic acids since many of the names of aldehydes and ketones are derived from the names of the corresponding carboxylic acids.
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Carboxylic acids: R-COOH, R-CO 2 H, Common names : HCO 2 H formic acid L. formica ant CH 3 CO 2 H acetic acid L. acetum vinegar CH 3 CH 2 CO 2 H propionic acid G. “first salt” CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CO 2 H butyric acid L. butyrum butter CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CO 2 H valeric acid L. valerans R C OH O
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Carboxylic acids, common names : CH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 CO 2 H caproic acid L. caper goat CH 3 (CH 2 ) 5 CO 2 H --- CH 3 (CH 2 ) 6 CO 2 H caprylic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CO 2 H --- CH 3 (CH 2 ) 8 CO 2 H capric acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 9 CO 2 H --- CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 CO 2 H lauric acid oil of lauryl
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5 4 3 2 1 C—C—C—C—C=O δ γ β α used in common names CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CHCOOH Br CH 3 CHCH 2 COOH CH 3 α- bromovaleric acid β -methylbutyric acid isovaleric acid
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COOH COOH COOH COOH CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 benzoic acid o -toluic acid m -toluic acid p -toluic acid Special names!
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ALDEHYDES AND KETONES “carbonyl” functional group: Aldehydes Ketones H C H O R C H O R C R' O R can be Ar C O
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Nomenclature: Aldehydes, common names: Derived from the common names of carboxylic acids; drop –ic acid suffix and add –aldehyde. CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH=O CH 3 CHCH=O butyraldehyde isobutyraldehyde (α-methylpropionaldehyde)
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CHO benzaldehyde CHO CH 3 o -tolualdehyde H C H O formaldehyde CH 2 CH=O phenylacetaldehyde
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nomenclature : Parent chain = longest continuous carbon chain containing the carbonyl group; alkane, drop –e, add –al. (note: no
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2010 for the course CHEM 51LA taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '03 term at UC Irvine.

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Ald&ketoneI - Aldehydes and Ketones Before you can...

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