**Unformatted text preview: ** Tensor Algebra and Tensor Analysis for Engineers
Second edition Mikhail Itskov Tensor Algebra and Tensor
Analysis for Engineers
With Applications to Continuum Mechanics
Second edition 123
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Mikhail Itskov
Department of Continuum Mechanics
RWTH Aachen University
Eilfschornsteinstr. 18
D 52062 Aachen
Germany
[email protected] ISBN 978-3-540-93906-1
e-ISBN 978-3-540-93907-8
DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-93907-8
Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York
Library of Congress Control Number: 2009926098
c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007, 2009
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Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) Moim roditelm Preface to the Second Edition This second edition is completed by a number of additional examples and
exercises. In response of comments and questions of students using this book,
solutions of many exercises have been improved for a better understanding.
Some changes and enhancements are concerned with the treatment of skewsymmetric and rotation tensors in the ﬁrst chapter. Besides, the text and
formulae have thoroughly been reexamined and improved where necessary. Aachen, January 2009 Mikhail Itskov Preface to the First Edition Like many other textbooks the present one is based on a lecture course given
by the author for master students of the RWTH Aachen University. In spite
of a somewhat diﬃcult matter those students were able to endure and, as far
as I know, are still ﬁne. I wish the same for the reader of the book.
Although the present book can be referred to as a textbook one ﬁnds only
little plain text inside. I tried to explain the matter in a brief way, nevertheless going into detail where necessary. I also avoided tedious introductions and
lengthy remarks about the signiﬁcance of one topic or another. A reader interested in tensor algebra and tensor analysis but preferring, however, words
instead of equations can close this book immediately after having read the
preface.
The reader is assumed to be familiar with the basics of matrix algebra
and continuum mechanics and is encouraged to solve at least some of numerous exercises accompanying every chapter. Having read many other texts on
mathematics and mechanics I was always upset vainly looking for solutions to
the exercises which seemed to be most interesting for me. For this reason, all
the exercises here are supplied with solutions amounting a substantial part of
the book. Without doubt, this part facilitates a deeper understanding of the
subject.
As a research work this book is open for discussion which will certainly
contribute to improving the text for further editions. In this sense, I am very
grateful for comments, suggestions and constructive criticism from the reader.
I already expect such criticism for example with respect to the list of references
which might be far from being complete. Indeed, throughout the book I only
quote the sources indispensable to follow the exposition and notation. For this
reason, I apologize to colleagues whose valuable contributions to the matter
are not cited.
Finally, a word of acknowledgment is appropriate. I would like to thank
Uwe Navrath for having prepared most of the ﬁgures for the book. Further, I am grateful to Alexander Ehret who taught me ﬁrst steps as well
as some “dirty” tricks in LATEX, which were absolutely necessary to bring the X Preface to the First Edition manuscript to a printable form. He and Tran Dinh Tuyen are also acknowledged for careful proof reading and critical comments to an earlier version
of the book. My special thanks go to the Springer-Verlag and in particular
to Eva Hestermann-Beyerle and Monika Lempe for their friendly support in
getting this book published. Aachen, November 2006 Mikhail Itskov Contents 1 2 3 Vectors and Tensors in a Finite-Dimensional Space . . . . . . . .
1.1 Notion of the Vector Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Basis and Dimension of the Vector Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Components of a Vector, Summation Convention . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Scalar Product, Euclidean Space, Orthonormal Basis . . . . . . . . .
1.5 Dual Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Second-Order Tensor as a Linear Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 Tensor Product, Representation of a Tensor with Respect to
a Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8 Change of the Basis, Transformation Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9 Special Operations with Second-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10 Scalar Product of Second-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.11 Decompositions of Second-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 Tensors of Higher Orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1
3
5
6
8
12
16
19
20
26
27
29
30 Vector and Tensor Analysis in Euclidean Space . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 Vector- and Tensor-Valued Functions, Diﬀerential Calculus . . .
2.2 Coordinates in Euclidean Space, Tangent Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Coordinate Transformation. Co-, Contra- and Mixed Variant
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Gradient, Covariant and Contravariant Derivatives . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Christoﬀel Symbols, Representation of the Covariant Derivative
2.6 Applications in Three-Dimensional Space: Divergence and Curl
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
42
46
49
57 Curves and Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Euclidean Space
3.1 Curves in Three-Dimensional Euclidean Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Euclidean Space . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Application to Shell Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
59
66
73
79 35
35
37 XII Contents 4 Eigenvalue Problem and Spectral Decomposition of
Second-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.1 Complexiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.2 Eigenvalue Problem, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.3 Characteristic Polynomial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4.4 Spectral Decomposition and Eigenprojections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.5 Spectral Decomposition of Symmetric Second-Order Tensors . . 92
4.6 Spectral Decomposition of Orthogonal
and Skew-Symmetric Second-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.7 Cayley-Hamilton Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 5 Fourth-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
5.1 Fourth-Order Tensors as a Linear Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
5.2 Tensor Products, Representation of Fourth-Order Tensors
with Respect to a Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.3 Special Operations with Fourth-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
5.4 Super-Symmetric Fourth-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
5.5 Special Fourth-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 6 Analysis of Tensor Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6.1 Scalar-Valued Isotropic Tensor Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6.2 Scalar-Valued Anisotropic Tensor Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
6.3 Derivatives of Scalar-Valued Tensor Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
6.4 Tensor-Valued Isotropic and Anisotropic Tensor Functions . . . . 129
6.5 Derivatives of Tensor-Valued Tensor Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
6.6 Generalized Rivlin’s Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 7 Analytic Tensor Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
7.2 Closed-Form Representation for Analytic Tensor Functions
and Their Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
7.3 Special Case: Diagonalizable Tensor Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
7.4 Special case: Three-Dimensional Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
7.5 Recurrent Calculation of Tensor Power Series and Their
Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 8 Applications to Continuum Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
8.1 Polar Decomposition of the Deformation Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . 165
8.2 Basis-Free Representations for the Stretch and Rotation Tensor 166
8.3 The Derivative of the Stretch and Rotation Tensor
with Respect to the Deformation Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Contents XIII 8.4 Time Rate of Generalized Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
8.5 Stress Conjugate to a Generalized Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
8.6 Finite Plasticity Based on the Additive
Decomposition of Generalized Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 1
Vectors and Tensors in a Finite-Dimensional
Space 1.1 Notion of the Vector Space
We start with the deﬁnition of the vector space over the ﬁeld of real numbers
R.
Deﬁnition 1.1. A vector space is a set V of elements called vectors satisfying
the following axioms.
A. To every pair, x and y of vectors in V there corresponds a vector x + y,
called the sum of x and y, such that
(A.1) x + y = y + x (addition is commutative),
(A.2) (x + y) + z = x + (y + z) (addition is associative),
(A.3) there exists in V a unique vector zero 0 , such that 0 + x = x, ∀x ∈ V,
(A.4) to every vector x in V there corresponds a unique vector −x such that
x + (−x) = 0 .
B. To every pair α and x, where α is a scalar real number and x is a vector in
V, there corresponds a vector αx, called the product of α and x, such that
(B.1) α (βx) = (αβ) x (multiplication by scalars is associative),
(B.2) 1x = x,
(B.3) α (x + y) = αx + αy (multiplication by scalars is distributive with
respect to vector addition),
(B.4) (α + β) x = αx + βx (multiplication by scalars is distributive with
respect to scalar addition),
∀α, β ∈ R, ∀x, y ∈ V.
Examples of vector spaces.
1) The set of all real numbers R. 2 1 Vectors and Tensors in a Finite-Dimensional Space x +y =y +x
x x
−x y
vector addition negative vector
2.5x
2x
x zero vector
multiplication by a real scalar
Fig. 1.1. Geometric illustration of vector axioms in two dimensions 2) The set of all directional arrows in two or three dimensions. Applying the
usual deﬁnitions for summation, multiplication by a scalar, the negative
and zero vector (Fig. 1.1) one can easily see that the above axioms hold
for directional arrows.
3) The set of all n-tuples of real numbers R:
⎧ ⎫
a1 ⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪ ⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨ a2 ⎪
⎬
.
a=
.
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
.
⎪
⎪
⎪ ⎭
⎪
⎩
an
Indeed, the axioms (A) and (B) apply to the n-tuples if one deﬁnes addition, multiplication by a scalar and ﬁnally the zero tuple, respectively,
by
⎧
⎫
⎧
⎫
⎧ ⎫
0⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪ a1 + b 1 ⎪
⎪
⎪ αa1 ⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨ a2 + b 2 ⎪
⎬
⎨ αa2 ⎪
⎬
⎨0⎪
⎬
.
.
, αa =
, 0 = . .
a+b=
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
.
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪ . ⎪
⎪
⎪.⎪
⎪
⎩
⎭
⎩
⎭
⎩
⎭
0
an + b n
αan
4) The set of all real-valued functions deﬁned on a real line. 1.2 Basis and Dimension of the Vector Space 3 1.2 Basis and Dimension of the Vector Space
Deﬁnition 1.2. A set of vectors x1 , x2 , . . . , xn is called linearly dependent if
there exists a set of corresponding scalars α1 , α2 , . . . , αn ∈ R, not all zero,
such that
n αi xi = 0 . (1.1) i=1 Otherwise, the vectors x1 , x2 , . . . , xn are called linearly independent. In this
case, none of the vectors xi is the zero vector (Exercise 1.2).
Deﬁnition 1.3. The vector
x= n αi xi (1.2) i=1 is called linear combination of the vectors x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , where αi ∈ R (i
= 1, 2, . . . , n).
Theorem 1.1. The set of n non-zero vectors x1 , x2 , . . . , xn is linearly dependent if and only if some vector xk (2 ≤ k ≤ n) is a linear combination of the
preceding ones xi (i = 1, . . . , k − 1).
Proof. If the vectors x1 , x2 , . . . , xn are linearly dependent, then
n αi xi = 0 , i=1 where not all αi are zero. Let αk (2 ≤ k ≤ n) be the last non-zero number, so
that αi = 0 (i = k + 1, . . . , n). Then,
k i=1 αi xi = 0 ⇒ xk = k−1 i=1 −αi
xi .
αk Thereby, the case k = 1 is avoided because α1 x1 = 0 implies that x1 = 0
(Exercise 1.1). Thus, the suﬃciency is proved. The necessity is evident.
Deﬁnition 1.4. A basis of a vector space V is a set G of linearly independent
vectors such that every vector in V is a linear combination of elements of G.
A vector space V is finite-dimensional if it has a finite basis.
Within this book, we restrict our attention to ﬁnite-dimensional vector spaces.
Although one can ﬁnd for a ﬁnite-dimensional vector space an inﬁnite number
of bases, they all have the same number of vectors. 4 1 Vectors and Tensors in a Finite-Dimensional Space Theorem 1.2. All the bases of a finite-dimensional vector space V contain
the same number of vectors.
Proof. Let G = {g 1 , g 2 , . . . , g n } and F = {f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f m } be two arbitrary
bases of V with diﬀerent numbers of elements, say m > n. Then, every vector
in V is a linear combination of the following vectors:
f 1 , g1 , g2 , . . . , gn . (1.3) These vectors are non-zero and linearly dependent. Thus, according to Theorem 1.1 we can ﬁnd such a vector g k , which is a linear combination of the
preceding ones. Excluding this vector we obtain the set G by
f 1 , g 1 , g 2 , . . . , g k−1 , g k+1 , . . . , g n
again with the property that every vector in V is a linear combination of the
elements of G . Now, we consider the following vectors
f 1 , f 2 , g 1 , g 2 , . . . , g k−1 , g k+1 , . . . , g n
and repeat the excluding procedure just as before. We see that none of the
vectors f i can be eliminated in this way because they are linearly independent.
As soon as all g i (i = 1, 2, . . . , n) are exhausted we conclude that the vectors
f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f n+1
are linearly dependent. This contradicts, however, the previous assumption
that they belong to the basis F .
Deﬁnition 1.5. The dimension of a finite-dimensional vector space V is the
number of elements in a basis of V.
Theorem 1.3. Every set F = {f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f n } of linearly independent vectors in an n-dimensional vectors space V forms a basis of V. Every set of
more than n vectors is linearly dependent.
Proof. The proof of this theorem is similar to the preceding one. Let G =
{g 1 , g 2 , . . . , g n } be a basis of V. Then, the vectors (1.3) are linearly dependent
and non-zero. Excluding a vector g k we obtain a set of vectors, say G , with
the property that every vector in V is a linear combination of the elements
of G . Repeating this procedure we ﬁnally end up with the set F with the
same property. Since the vectors f i (i = 1, 2, . . . , n) are linearly independent
they form a basis of V. Any further vectors in V, say f n+1 , f n+2 , . . . are thus
linear combinations of F . Hence, any set of more than n vectors is linearly
dependent.
Theorem 1.4. Every set F = {f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f m } of linearly independent vectors in an n-dimensional vector space V can be extended to a basis. 1.3 Components of a Vector, Summation Convention 5 Proof. If m = n, then F is already a basis according to Theorem 1.3. If
m < n, then we try to ﬁnd n − m vectors f m+1 , f m+2 , . . . , f n , such that all
the vectors f i , that is, f 1 , f 2 , . . . , f m , f m+1 , . . . , f n are linearly independent
and consequently form a basis. Let us assume, on the contrary, that only
k < n − m such vectors can be found. In this case, for all x ∈ V there exist
scalars α, α1 , α2 , . . . , αm+k , not all zero, such that
αx + α1 f 1 + α2 f 2 + . . . + αm+k f m+k = 0 ,
where α = 0 since otherwise the vectors f i (i = 1, 2, . . . , m + k) would be
linearly dependent. Thus, all the vectors x of V are linear combinations of
f i (i = 1, 2, . . . , m + k). Then, the dimension of V is m + k < n, which contradicts the assumption of this theorem. 1.3 Components of a Vector, Summation Convention
Let G = {g 1 , g 2 , . . . , g n } be a basis of an n-dimensional vector space V. Then,
x= n xi g i , ∀x ∈ V. (1.4) i=1 Theorem 1.5. The representation (1.4) with respect to a given basis G is
unique.
Proof. Let
x= n i=1 xi g i and x = n yi gi i=1 be two diﬀerent representations of a vector x, where not all scalar coeﬃcients
xi and y i (i = 1, 2, . . . , n) are pairwise identical. Then,
0 = x + (−x) = x + (−1) x = n i=1 xi g i + n n i −y i g i =
x − yi gi, i=1 i=1 where we use the identity −x = (−1) x (Exercise 1.1). Thus, either the numbers xi and y i are pairwise equal xi = y i (i = 1, 2, . . . , n) or the vectors g i are
linearly dependent. The latter one is likewise impossible because these vectors
form a basis of V.
The scalar numbers xi (i = 1, 2, . . . , n) in the representation (1.4) are called
components of the vector x with respect to the basis G = {g 1 , g 2 , . . . , g n }.
The summation of the form (1.4) is often used in tensor analysis. For this
reason it is usually represented without the summation symbol in a short form
by 6 1 Vectors and Tensors in a Finite-Dimensional Space x= n xi g i = xi g i (1.5) i=1 referred to as Einstein’s summation convention. Accordingly, the summation is
implied if an index appears twice in a multiplicative term, once as a superscript
and once as a subscript. Such a repeated index (called dummy index) takes
the values from 1 to n (the dimension of the vector space in consideration).
T...

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