Lecture6.genome_evolution

Lecture6.genome_evolution - Genome Evolution Genomics In...

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Unformatted text preview: Genome Evolution Genomics In genomics, scientists study whole sets of genes and their interactions Genomics is yielding new insights into genome organization, regulation of gene expression, growth and development, and evolution Bioinformatics The application of computer science and mathematics to genetics and other biological information Genome Sequencing Human Genome Project officially begun in 1990 Researchers have taken this project through three stages that provided progressively more detailed views of the human genome: Linkage (genetic) mapping, physical mapping, and DNA sequencing sequencing was largely completed by 2003 1) Linkage (Genetic) Mapping Cytogenetic maps provided the starting point for more detailed mapping chromosome banding and location of specific genes The first stage in mapping a large genome is constructing a linkage map of several thousand genetic markers throughout each chromosome The order of markers and relative distances between them are based on recombination frequencies 2) Physical Mapping A physical map is constructed by cutting a DNA molecule into many short fragments and arranging them in order by identifying overlaps Physical mapping gives the actual distance in base pairs (bp) between markers Supplies of DNA fragments for physical maps are prepared by cloning Cloning vectors YACs BACs 3) DNA Sequencing Determining the sequence of small DNA fragments Assembly of the partial sequences into a complete genome sequence Linkage mapping, physical mapping, and DNA sequencing represent the strategy of the Human Genome Project An alternative approach to sequencing genomes starts with sequencing random DNA fragments ( shotgun approach ) J. Craig Venter (Celera Genomics) Computer programs then assemble overlapping short sequences into one continuous sequence First Individual Diploid Human Genome Published By Researchers at J. Craig Venter Institute September 3, 2007 Analyzing Genomes Bioinformatics resources available worldwide Identifying Protein-Coding Genes in DNA Sequences Proteomics : the systematic study of full protein sets ( proteomes ) encoded by genomes Systems biology Genome Size Eukarotic genomes tend to be larger than prokaryotes Among eukaryotes a systematic relationship between genome size and phenotype has not been established Number of Genes In general, bacteria and archae tend to fewer genes than eukaryotes Among eukaryotes, the number of genes do not correlate with genome size Among vertebrates there is extensive alternative splicing of RNA transcripts Genome Density Eukaryotes generally have larger genomes but fewer genes in a given number of base pairs Most of the DNA in a prokaryote genome codes for protein, tRNA, or rRNA....
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2010 for the course CHEM 51LA 56555 taught by Professor Guan during the Spring '10 term at UC Irvine.

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Lecture6.genome_evolution - Genome Evolution Genomics In...

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