Lecture9-1.bionergetics_and_homeostasis

Lecture9-1.bionergetics_and_homeostasis - Bioenergetics and...

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Unformatted text preview: Bioenergetics and Homeostasis All organisms require chemical energy for growth, repair, physiological processes, regulation, and reproduction the flow of energy through an animal limits behavior, growth, and reproduction determines how much food an animal needs Studying bioenergetics tells us much about an animals adaptations Bioenergetics Energy Sources and Allocation Animals harvest chemical energy from food Energy-containing molecules from food are usually used to make ATP, which powers cellular work After the needs of staying alive are met , remaining food molecules can be used in biosynthesis Metabolic rate is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time Energy is measure in calories (cal) or kilocalories (kcal) C alorie = 1000 cal = 1 kcal Quantifying Energy Use Metabolic rate can be measured by measuring an animals heat loss calorimeter Indirect measure of metabolic rate Measurements of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced An animals metabolic rate is closely related to its bioenergetic strategy Birds and mammals are mainly endothermic their bodies are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism endotherms typically have higher metabolic rates Bioenergetic Strategies Amphibians and reptiles other than birds are ectothermic they gain their heat mostly from external sources ectotherms generally have lower metabolic rates Metabolic rates are affected by many factors besides whether an animal is an endotherm or ectotherm Two of these factors are size and activity Influences on Metabolic Rate Size and Metabolic Rate Metabolic rate per gram (specific metabolic rate) is inversely related to body size among similar animals The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest The standard metabolic rate (SMR) is the metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specifc temperature Activity greatly affects metabolic rate In general, maximum metabolic rate is inversely related to the duration of the activity Activity and Metabolic Rate...
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Lecture9-1.bionergetics_and_homeostasis - Bioenergetics and...

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