Study Guide #1 - General Geology Study Guide Answers...

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General Geology Study Guide Answers Minerals – Chapter 4 Minerals are naturally occurring, solid, fixed chemical composition (or variable within limits) , and a definite arrangement of elements that compose it 1) oxygen 2)silicon 3)Aluminum 4)Iron 5)calcium 6)sodium 7)potassium 8)magnesium an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more valence electrons, making it positively or negatively charged Chemical Bonds o Ionic- atoms bonded by gaining or losing electrons o Covalent- atoms form by sharing electrons o Metallic- widespread sharing of electrons o Van der Waal’s- atoms bond together when asymmetries in arrangement of electrons develop Strongest is covalent and weakest is van der waal’s Covalent bonds are associated with the hardest minerals Fundamental building block of silicate minerals. 1 Si(4+) and 4O(2-) atom. Net charge is (4-) Structures of silicate minerals o Isolated Tetrahedron- tetrahedrons sit by themselves (mineral olivine) o Single Chain- tetrahedrons share 2 atoms (mineral pyroxene) o Double Chain- shares 3 atoms (mineral amphibole) o Sheet Structure- share 3 atoms and form continuous sheets (mica minerals) o Framework- all four are shared (quartz, feldspar) Contains fluorine or chlorine that typically bonds with nonmetals (Halite) Oxygen is bonded with a metal (Hematite) Sulfur bonded with a metal (Pyrite) Contain carbon and oxygen that is bonded together with other element (Calcite) Contain a single element (Sulfur) Sulfur combined with oxygen bonded to a metal (Gypsum) Know the physical and Chemical properties Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes – Chapters 5 and 6 Aggregates of minerals, naturally occurring, subdivision Origin Cooling and subsequent crystallization of hot liquid melt Molten rock composed of oxygen, silicon, iron, aluminum, potassium, sodium,
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