4 - PLB 105 Lab ManualFall 2010 page 4-1 Laboratory 4...

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PLB 105 Lab Manual—Fall 2010 page 4-1 Laboratory 4 Sclerenchyma With this lab we continue our investigation of the ground tissue system, which is one of the three primary tissue systems. Today we will examine sclerenchyma, which may form simple tissues or be part of a complex tissue. For example, individual sclerenchyma cells are common in the complex tissues of xylem and phloem. Sclerenchyma forms supportive and protective tissue but differs from collenchyma because sclerenchyma cells have lignified secondary cell walls. Lignified cell walls give a characteristic red-staining reaction with phloroglucinol + HCl. There are two basic types of sclerenchyma: sclereids and fibers. A. Sclerenchyma—sclereids Sclereids are primarily protective or supportive. They come in several shapes and sizes. Typical locations are seed coat tissues in seeds and stone cells in gritty-textured fruits, such as pears. To best see sclereids, stain fresh material with phloroglucinol + HCL. Even without the stain, sclereids are identifiable by their relatively thick cell walls and cell shapes. 1. Pyrus fruit Scrape some of the flesh, particularly from just under the skin, onto a slide and examine. These are
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4 - PLB 105 Lab ManualFall 2010 page 4-1 Laboratory 4...

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