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test three review - Topics Subsistence-the source from...

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Topics Subsistence -the source from which food and other items necessary to exist are obtained Political Organization -the patterned ways in which power is legitimately used in a society to regulate behavior Social Stratification -the condition of being arranged in social strata or classes within a group Economics - the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, or the material welfare of humankind Ethnicity -ethnic traits, background, allegiance, or association Race - a group of persons related by common descent or heredity Readings The Hunters: Scarce resources in the Kalahari Pastoralism: Beating the odds in arid Africa Reciprocity and the Power of Giving Poor Man, Rich Man, Big Man, Chief Textbook case studies The Fierce People Mixed Blood Concepts/Terms Patterns of Subsistence -(how we fill our bellies) the way a society transforms environmental resources into food Hunting/Gathering -(aquatic H & G = fishing) Pastoralism -(herding societies) a food gathering strategy that depends on the care of domesticated herd animals Horticulture -(growers) production of plants using a simple, nonmechanized technology; fields are not used continuously Agriculture -a form of food production in which fields are in permanent cultivation using plows, animals, and techniques of soil and water control Agri-business -corporate enterprises; economics of scale Slash and burn/Swidden -a form of cultivation in which a field is cleared by felling the trees and burning the brush
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Reciprocity -a mutual give-and-take among people of equal status General - a distribution of goods with no immediate or specific return expected Balanced -an exchange of goods of nearly equal value, with a clear obligation to return them within a specified time limit Negative -exchange conducted for the purpose of material advantage and the desire to get something for nothing Redistributive -a form of exchange in which goods are collected from or contributed by members of the group and then redistributed to the group, often in the form of ceremonial feasts Egalitarianism -(society) a society in which no individual or group has more privileged access to resources, power, or prestige than any other Social/Political stratification -(stratified society) a society characterized by formal, permanent social and economic inequality in which some people are denied access to basic resources Segmentary lineages -(system) a form of sociopolitical organization in which multiple descent groups (usually patrilineages) form at different levels and function in different contexts Functionalist perspective for social stratification Power -the ability to control resources in one’s own interest Prestige -social honor or respect Open societies -(system) a stratification system based primarily on achievement Life chances -the opportunities that people have to fulfill their potential in society Flexible race Constructionist ethnic theory -(constructionism) a view of ethnicity that holds that
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