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Unformatted text preview: CA 1-1 (a) Financial accounting is the process that culminates in the preparation of financial reports relative to the enterprise as a whole for use by parties both internal and external to the enterprise. In contrast, managerial accounting is the process of identification, measurement, accumulation, analysis, prepa-ration, interpretation, and communication of financial information used by the management to plan, evaluate, and control within an organization and to assure appropriate use of, and accountability for, its resources. (b) The financial statements most frequently provided are the balance sheet, the income statement, the statement of cash flows, and the statement of changes in owners’ or stockholders’ equity. (c) Financial statements are the principal means through which financial information is communicated to those outside an enterprise. As indicated in (b), there are four major financial statements. However, some financial information is better provided, or can be provided only, by means of financial reporting other than formal financial statements. Financial reporting (other than financial statements and related notes) may take various forms. Examples include the company president’s letter or supplementary schedules in the corporate annual reports, prospectuses, reports filed with govern-ment agencies, news releases, management’s forecasts, and descriptions of an enterprise’s social or environmental impact. CA 1-7 (a) CAP. The Committee on Accounting Procedure, CAP, which was in existence from 1939 to 1959, was a natural outgrowth of AICPA committees which were in existence during the period 1933 to 1938. The committee was formed in direct response to the criticism received by the accounting profession during the financial crisis of 1929 and the years thereafter. The authorization to issue pronouncements on matters of accounting principles and procedures was based on the belief that the AICPA had the responsibility to establish practices that would become generally accepted by the profession and by corporate management. As a general rule, the CAP directed its attention, almost entirely, to resolving specific accounting problems and topics rather than to the development of generally accepted accounting principles. The committee voted on the acceptance of specific Accounting Research Bulletins published by the committee. A two-thirds majority was required to issue a particular research bulletin. The CAP did not have the authority to require acceptance of the issued bulletins by the general membership of the AICPA, but rather received its authority only upon general acceptance of the pronouncement by the members. That is, the bulletins set forth normative accounting procedures that “should be” followed by the accounting profession, but were not “required” to be followed....
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2010 for the course AC550 505 taught by Professor Weiss during the Summer '09 term at Keller Graduate School of Management.
- Summer '09