Nutrition Notes

Nutrition Notes - Nutrition Review WATER-most vital...

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Nutrition Review: WATER: -most vital nutrient -60% of a person's weight -transports nutrients -can act as a lubricant to cushion tissues -maintain body temp -dehydrated before you feel thirst -both food and drink can satisfy needs + water formed from cellular breakdown of energy nutrients -hard water high in calcium, soft water high in sodium -extracellular=outside cells -- intracellular=inside cells. . MOST (fluid compartments) -interstitial fluid = fluid that surrounds cells -Functions of Body Water 1. medium for cellular metabolic reactions 2. maintain acid/base balance 3. transports gasses, metabolic waste 4. fills cells and spaces between cells 5. lubricant, shock absorber, energy formation -water balance: water input=water output -symptoms of increasing water losses: heat cramp, impatience, flushed skin, tingling in neck and extremities, dizzy, short of breath, cotton-mouth, unclear speech, swollen tongue, sunken eyes, painful urination, unable to swallow, numb, death -legumes high in water, fruit -dehydration: loss of body water as a percent of weight ex. 150 lb - 3 lb water = 2% dehydrated weight regained with re-hydration MINERALS: -when salt dissolves in water they separate into single electrically charged particles known as ions -charged ions=electrolytes: keep fluids in proper compartments --> life processes take place -calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body: nearly all 99% of the boy's calcium is stored in the bones and teeth -slightest drop in blood calcium concentration occurs -->bone calcium can release some to body fluid -first 3 decades of life you hit peak bone mass: the highest attainable bone density -potassium (unlike sodium) exerts a positive effect against hypertension -simple goiter=iodine deficiency that causes enlargement of thyroid gland -toxic goiter=enlargement of thyroid gland from iodine excess -every living cell contains iron -most of the iron in the body is a component of two proteins: hemoglobin (in red blood
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cells) and myoglobin (in muscle cells) -10-15% of dietary fiber is absorbed -heme iron is more reliably absorbed than non heme iron -meat, fish, and poultry contain MFP FACTOR which promotes absorption of non heme iron from other foods eaten at the same time -96% of the body= oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen -other 4%=calcium, phosphorous,and other -essential/major minerals: at least 100 mg/day -positively charged particles = cations -negatively charged particles = anions -fluid inside cells (intracellular) = 60% of body water and potassium-rich -outside cells (extracellular) =sodium rich -electrolyte functions: 1. water/fluid balance 2. acid/base balance 3. nerve transmission 4. muscle contraction -SODIUM: kidney is responsible for storage and release -75% of sodium added during processing, 10% naturally occurs, 15% added in cooking and at table -major extracellular cation -nerve and muscle activity -raise blood pressure -sodium high in processed food -US consumes 3-4 times recommended -sodium toxicity problems: 1. hypertension 2. heart disease
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Nutrition Notes - Nutrition Review WATER-most vital...

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