PSYCH 3 - BioPsych Reading Notes pg 40-47 blood brain...

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BioPsych Reading Notes: pg. 40-47 - blood brain barrier: - mechanism that impedes the passage of many toxic substances from the blood into the brain - results from special structure of cerebral blood vessels - cells of blood vessel walls are tightly packed, forming a barrier (to partic- ularly proteins and other large molecules but not all eg. glucose) - Neurons: - external anatomy - cell body - the metabolic center of the neuron; aka the soma - cell membrane - semipermeable membrane that encloses neuron - dendrites - short processes emanating from the cell body, which receive most of the synaptic contacts from other neurons - axon hillock - the cone-shaped region at the junction between the axon and cell body - axon - the long narrow process that projects from the cell body - myelin - the fatty insulation around many axons - nodes of ranvier - the gaps between sections of myelin - buttons - the buttonlike endings of the axon branches which release chemicals into synapses - synapses - gaps between adjacent neurons across which chemical sig- nals are transmitted - internal anatomy - Nucleus - the spherical DNA containing structure of the cell body - Endoplasmic Reticulum - A system of folded membranes in the cell body; rough portions play a role in the synthesis of proteins; smooth portions play a role in synthesis of fats - Ribosomes - Internal cellular structures on which proteins are synthes- ized; located on E.R. - Golgi Complex - a system of membranes that packages molecules in vesicles - mitochondria - sites of aerobic energy release - microtubules - tubules responsible for the rapid transport of material throughout neurons - synaptic vesicles - spherical membrane packages that store neurotrans- mitter molecules ready for release near synapses - neurotransmitters - molecules that are released from active neurons and influence the activity of other cells - neuron cell membrane - composed of a lipid bilayer - two layers of fat molecules - there
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pg. 405 - 422 - health psychology: - an area of research that focuses on the effects of psychological factors on physical health - Drug tolerance: - drug tolerance: state of decreased sensitivity to a drug that develops as a result of exposure to it - certain dose of drugs has less effect than it used to - takes more of drug to produce same effect - shift in the dose response curve - important: - 1. cross tolerance: exposure to one drug can produce tolerance to other drugs that act by the same mechanism - 2. drug tolerance often develops to some effects of a drug but not to oth- ers - 3. drug sensitization: increase in sensitivity to a drug - tolerance may develop to some effects of a drug, but may in- crease in sensitivity to others - there is no single mechanism that underlies all examples of drug toler- ance - 2 categories of changes occur: - metabolic tolerance - tolerance that results from changes that reduce the amount of the drug getting to its sites of action - functional tolerance: tolerance the results from changes that reduce the reactivity of the sites of action to the drug - psychoactive drugs: drugs that affect subjective experience and behavior
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