BIOPSYCHOLOGY - BIOPSYCHOLOGY Ch. 2: Anatomy of the Brain...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOPSYCHOLOGY Ch. 2: Anatomy of the Brain Blood-Brain Barrier : a mechanism that impedes the passage of many toxic substances from the blood into the brain o a consequence of the special structure of cerebral blood vessels o cells of the blood in brain are tightly packed, thus forming barrier to the passage of many molecules (proteins and other large molecules to be specific) o however, some large molecules are critical for normal brain function (eg glucose) o different parts of the brain have unique blood barrier ex. Sex hormones are rapidly entered in parts of brain involved in sexual behavior Cells of the Nervous System : 2 fundamentally different types, neurons and glial cells) o NEURONS : cells that are specialized for the reception, conduction, and transmission of electrochemical signals External: Cell wall : the metabolic center of the neuron; also called the soma Cell membrane: the semi-permeable membrane that encloses the neuron Dendrites : the short processes emanating from the cell body, which receive most of the synaptic contacts from other neurons Axon hillock : cone-shaped region at the junction between the axon and the cell body Axon : the long, narrow processes that projects from the cell body Myelin : the fatty insulation around many axons Nodes of Ranvier : that gaps between sections of myelin Buttons : the buttonlike endings of the axon branches, which release chemicals into synapses Synapses : the gaps between adjacent neurons across which chemical signals are transmitted Internal: Endoplasmic reticulum : a system of folded membranes in the cell body; rough portions (with ribosomes) play a role in the synthesis of proteins; smooth portions (without ribosomes) play a role in the synthesis of fats Nucleus : the spherical DNA-containing structure of the cell body Mitochondria : sites of aerobic (oxygen-consuming) energy release Microtubules : tubules responsible for the rapid transport of material throughout neurons Cytoplasm : the clear internal fluid of the cell Ribosomes : internal cellular structures on which proteins are synthesized; they are located on the endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex : a system of membranes that packages molecules in vesicles Synaptic vesicles : spherical membrane packages that stores neurotransmitter molecules ready for release near synapses Neurotransmitters : molecules that are released from active neurons and influence the activity of other cells Neuron Cell Membrane: The cell membrane of a neuron is composes of a lipid bilayer : two layers of fat molecules o Embedded are numerous protein molecules that are the basis of many of the cell membranes functioning Classes of Neurons: Multipolar neuron : more than 2 processes emanating from their cell bodies (most neurons) Unipolar neuron : one process extending from cell body Bipolar neuron : two processes extending from cell body...
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course PSY 41491 taught by Professor Szulinski during the Spring '10 term at UCSB.

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BIOPSYCHOLOGY - BIOPSYCHOLOGY Ch. 2: Anatomy of the Brain...

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