Phil 4- Final Notes

Phil 4- Final Notes - Philosophy 4- Ethics Final Review...

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Philosophy 4- Ethics Final Review Normative Ethics: An Introduction -a branch of ethics; the study and development of systems of right and wrong -- systems of rules, principles, procedures, for figuring out what one should/should not do (morally) -sample normative views: 1. deontology 2. utilitarianism 3. virtue theory -the central concern: 2 concepts: 1. right and wrong: apply to actions; "Abortions are morally wrong" 2. good and bad: apply to people or things; "Hitler is morally bad" -right and wrong: 2 types of actions: 1. obligatory 2. optional 3. wrong What does it mean to say an action is right or wrong? *Right action: "right"= 1 of 2 things 1. Broad meaning: obligatory or optional; you are not doing something wrong (helping someone with their car) 2. narrow meaning: obligatory actions; no option, to do "right" thing is obligated (refraining from torturing children) *Wrong action: obligated NOT to do -good and bad: positive value: something/someone good negative value: something/someone bad *Understanding value: 2 types 1. Intrinsic value: something that has value in and of itself (ex. happiness) 2. Extrinsic value: does not have value in and of itself; the value of the thing is found in its relation to something else (ex. money) *In ethics we are concerned with what makes something intrinsically good or bad *the terms good and bad are value concepts: -value is a broad term, includes outside ethics: some have moral value some have non moral value *only persons (those who ca morally praise or blame) are capable of possessing either positive or negative moral worth *objects/animals have nonmoral value (don't morally condemn shark that eats a surfer)
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*moral values of a person = their character: -good moral value=virtuous --> honesty, courage, justice. .. -bad moral value=vicious -->dishonesty, cowardice, indifference -goals of moral theory 1. theoretical aim: to understand the underlying nature of right and wrong, good and bad *what makes features of a persons/actions right/wrong good/bad? 2. practical aim: to determine what decision procedure used to determine rightness or wrongness, goodness or badness *what procedure guides correct moral reasoning/decision making? -moral principles: a very general moral statement that purports to give conditions under which an action is right/wrong good/bad (ex. an action is wrong if and only if it involves treating others as a means for an end: this theory satisfies theoretical and practical aim) -evaluating a moral theory: 1. consistency: a moral theory's principle's, together with relevant factual info, yield consistent moral verdicts about the morality of actions, persons, and other items of moral evaluation *the same action cannot be both wrong and right *if find an exception, use "All. .." statements 2. determinacy: a moral theory should feature principles that, together with relevant factual info, yield determinate moral verdicts about the morality of actions, person, and other items of moral evaluation in a wide range of cases
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course PHIL 38406 taught by Professor Huizenga during the Winter '09 term at UCSB.

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Phil 4- Final Notes - Philosophy 4- Ethics Final Review...

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