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Midterm Study Guide

Midterm Study Guide - Substance Abuse Study Guide Central...

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Substance Abuse Study Guide Central Nervous System: consist of the Brain and the Spinal chord, part of the nervous system that coordinates all activities of the body Autonomic Nervous System: part of the peripheral nervous system that functions as a control system which acts below the area of consciousness. Divided into the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system. parasympathetic nervous system- “rest and digest” promotes calming of the nerves sympathetic nervous system- “fight and flight” promotes the increase of energy use Half-Life: the period of time it takes a substance to reduce by half of its original volume. Blood Brain Barrier: a separation of blood in the arteries and cerebrospinal fluid. Prevents potentially harmful chemicals from reaching the brain while allowing certain metabolic products such as glucose to cross. Placental Barrier: impedes certain chemicals from reaching the reproduction system although most fat-soluble products are allowed. Drugs that are more water soluble and have high molecular weight tend not to cross. Biotransformation: the chemical modification made by an organism on a chemical compound. Chemical alterations to chemicals such as nutrients and drugs. The metabolism of a drug or toxin in the body is an example of biotransformation. typically the body makes a foreign chemical more soluble to increase its rate of secretion through the urine. can be completed in two phases Neurotransmitters: chemicals which relay, modulate, and amplify the signals between a neuron and another cell. Stored in synaptic vesicles which cluster in the axon terminal and then bind to the presynaptic membrane where the neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft. Inhibitory and Excitatory: Glutamate (excitatory) GABA (inhibitory) Dopamine: a neurotransmitter that is associated with the pleasure system of the brain. Because dopamine can't cross the blood brain barrier, L-Dopa is given. Cocaine and amphetamines inhibit the re-uptake of dopamine. Abnormally high dopaminergic transmission is linked with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and psychosis, these are treated by inhibiting dopamine receptors. closely associated with reward-seeking behavior, pain processing Serotonin: a neurotransmitter that controls regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, muscle contraction and other cognitive functions. Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors are used to treat people with depression to increase the concentration of serotonin in the brain. Synergism: two or more agents working together to produce a result not obtainable by any other agent individually. Potentiation: enhancement in signal transmission between two neurons. Connection with memory and learning that can be connected with Drugs and addiction. Potentiation is responsible for the
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behaviors that characterize addiction.
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