Final Review 2

Final Review 2 - Normative Ethics Definition The study and...

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Normative Ethics Definition The study and development of systems of right and wrong – systems of rules, principles or procedures for figuring out what one should do and should not do (morally speaking). What makes actions right or wrong Two sets of concepts normative ethics concerns itself with Right and Wrong Good and Bad Right The broad meaning of “right” includes actions that are both obligatory and optional. o It essentially means you are not doing something wrong. (helping someone who’s car is broken down) The narrow meaning of “right” refers to actions that are obligatory o It essentially means doing what one is obligated to do – there is no option (refraining from torturing children) An action is wrong is To say that Ron did something “wrong” is to say that Ron did something he was obligated not to do. Two kinds of value something can have Something has intrinsic value when it has value in and of itself Something has extrinsic value when it does not have value in and of itself. The value of the thing is found in its relation to something else In ethics, we are not concerned with what makes something intrinsically good or bad. We don’t worry about instrumentally good things. We are talking about their character: A person with good moral value we call virtuous. A person with bad moral value we call vicious Two goals of a moral theory Theoretical aim : To discover the underlying nature of right and wrong, good and bad o What underlying features of actions, persons, and other items of moral evaluation make them right or wrong, good or bad? The Practical Aim : To determine what decision procedure to use to determine the rightness or wrongness of an action, or the goodness or badness of a person or thing o What decision procedure can we use to guide correct moral reasoning and decision making? Moral Theory can be evaluated by Consistency o A moral theory’s principles, together with relevant factual information, yield consistent moral verdicts about the morality of actions, persons, and other items of moral evaluation. The same action cannot be both right and wrong. “All” statements if any exception is found Determinacy
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o A moral theory should feature principles that, together with relevant factual information, yield determinate moral verdicts about the morality or actions, persons, and other items of moral evaluation in a wide range of cases . So if your moral theory cannot give answers to a number of questions, then it’s ruled out o Applicability o The principles of a moral theory should be applicable in the sense that they specify relevant information about actions and other items of evaluation that human beings can typically obtain and use to arrive at moral verdicts on the basis of those principles. E.g. utility cannot be calculated Internal Support o A moral theory whose principles, together with relevant factual information, imply our considered moral beliefs receives support –
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Final Review 2 - Normative Ethics Definition The study and...

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