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Unformatted text preview: March 20, 2009 Philosophy 4 Final Study Guide Normative Ethics Normative Ethics : the study and development of systems of right and wrong Two Sets of Concepts :- Right and Wrong o Two meanings of the term right: In broad terms, right includes actions that are both obligatory and optional (fixing someones car that has broken down) you are not doing something wrong In narrow terms, right refers to actions that are obligatory doing what one is obligated to do o One meaning of the term wrong: Wrong refers to doing something that one is obligated not to do- Good and Bad Two Types of Value:- I nt rinsic Value: having value in and of itself; happiness (this is the type of value that ethics is concerned with)- Extrinsic Value: not having value in and of itself; its value relies on its relation to something else (money) The Two Goals of a Moral Theory :- Theoretical Aim : to discover the underlying nature of what makes something right or wrong or good or bad- Practical Aim: to determine the procedure used to determine the rightness or wrongness of an action, or the goodness or badness of a person or thing Evaluation of a Moral Theory:- Consistency: your moral theory cannot state that one action is both right and wrong- Determinacy : your moral theory must yield determinate results to a wide variety of asked questions- Applicability : your moral theory must be able to be applied to numerous different situations- I nternal Support : your moral theory is in conjunction with your moral intuition- External Support : your moral theory is supported by scientific notions or scriptures- Explanatory Power : your moral theory must be able to explain why actions are right and wrong and why persons or things are good and bad Ring of Gyges and Psychological Egoism The Point of the Story: the story makes a point about people that if everyone were able to always act out of self-interest and not have to deal with the negative consequences of doing so, then everyone would. Glaucons Positive Argument : everyone acts out of self- interest; there is no such thing as an altruistic act Psychological Egoism : everyone does in fact act out of self- interest; there is no such thing as an altruistic act. This is a descriptive claim; it tells us about how things in fact are Ethical Egoism : the morally right action is the one that is done out of self-interest and best advances ones own interests. This is a prescriptive claim; it tells us about how things ought to be Identity vs . Predication: the is of predication is used when one is describing something, such as the car is blue or the grass is green; the is of identity, which is what the ethical egoist claims, is used to show that one thing is identical to, the same thing as, or just is another therefore, the ethical egoist is claiming that the morally right action is identical to the action that best advances ones own interests Bad Argument for Ethical Egoism :- All of our actions are performed out of self-interest-...
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course PHIL PHIL 4 taught by Professor Huizenga during the Winter '09 term at UCSB.
- Winter '09