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Psych 7 Midterm Review

Psych 7 Midterm Review - Psych 7 Midterm Review Chapter 1 4...

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Psych 7 Midterm Review Chapter 1: 4 Goals of Science: o Describe behavior o Predict behavior o Determine causes of behavior o Understand/explain behavior To conclude causation, 3 things must occur: o Temporal precedence: there is a temporal order of events in which the cause precedes the effect o Covariation of the cause and effect: when the cause is present, the effect occurs; when the cause is not present, the effect does not occur o Elimination of alternative explanations: nothing other than a causal variable could be responsible for the observed effect; there should be no other plausible alternative explanation for the relationship Basic research: tries to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behavior Applied research: conducted to address issues in which there are practical problems and potential solutions o Program evaluation Chapter 2: Hypothesis: a type of idea or question that makes a statement about something that might be true: a tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it o Make a specific prediction concerning the outcome of the experiment o If the prediction is confirmed, the hypothesis is supported and vice-versa *When the results of a study confirm a prediction, the hypothesis is only supported, not proven
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5 Sources of ideas: o Common sense o Observation of the world around us o Theories 2 functions: Organize and explain a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behavior Generate new knowledge by focusing our thinking so that we notice new aspects of behaviors – they guide our observations of the world o Past research o Practical problems 5 sections of a research article: o Abstract o Introduction o Method o Results o Discussion Chapter 3 Three basic ethical principles: o Beneficence : the need for research to maximize benefits and minimize any possible harmful effects of participation Risk-benefit analysis o Respect for persons (autonomy): participants are treated as autonomous; they are capable of making deliberate decisions about whether to participate in research Informed consent : potential participants in a research project should be provided with all information that might influence their decision of whether or not to participate
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Psych 7 Midterm Review - Psych 7 Midterm Review Chapter 1 4...

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