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Unformatted text preview: Final Studying – 140A Marx o Ideology is the ideas of the ruling class, very top-down. We don’t realize that were oppressed so we don’t overthrow the people oppressing us. If we realized, we would do something but ideology keeps us mystified. Althusser o The importance of reproducing the conditions of production . Not enough to produce, you must produce the desire to keep on reproducing. This is where ideology comes in. o The base may determine the superstructure, but this is only true “in the last instance” ...which never really occurs. o Ideology : is a representation of the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence.... The difference between appearance and reality, the base is obscured by the superstructure. Comes to argue that appearances and reality are the same. 1. relative autonomy of the superstructure with respect to the base 2. reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base. Your material conditions guide your actions, which create your beliefs. “ideas” are expressed in actions, yet the presence of certain actions points to the existence of certain ideas or beliefs. o Ideology has no history because it is outside of history...omnihistorical, always there. o RSA – Repressive State Apparatus : specialized apparatus whose existence is recognized in legal practice, defines the state as a force of repressive execution for the interests of the ruling class. RSAs are whole, unified, singular, public, and function by violence or by repression. Ex: courts, police, prisons, army. o ISA – Ideological State Apparatus: realities which present themselves as distinct and specialized institutions. There are a plurality of these institutions, they operate in the private domain, function by ideology, and are “relatively autonomous”. Ex: churches, schools, family, communications (press/media), literature/arts. o Historically, the Church was the primary ISA, now schools have replaced it in influence. Schools educate different groups of students for their different roles in society (each mass ejected). School represented as a neutral environment purged of ideology. o Interpellation : the process by which a subject recognizes that he has been hailed, how ideology addresses a subject. We are born into a society that already has existing ideologies, thus we are “ always already interpellated ”. o Ideology gives a subject his identity, his subjectivity, and yet it subjects him to itself....
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course ENG 140A taught by Professor Mitchumhuehls during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.
- Spring '08
- Literary Criticism