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Lecture 4--Neurons _ Genetics 3 slides

Lecture 4--Neurons _ Genetics 3 slides - BIOLOGICAL...

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10/6/10 1 B IOLOGICAL P SYCHOLOGY PSC 001 Section 003 Fall 2010 Outline Last time: The Nervous System Older Brain Structures The Cerebral Cortex This time: The Cerebral Cortex Continued Current Techniques for Studying the Brain Neurons and Neurotransmitters Nature and Nurture (Just a tiny bit…) The Frontal Lobe: Prefrontal Cortex Personality Emotion Impulse control Long-term planning Cultural norms Memory Abstract Thinking Decision Making
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10/6/10 2 Two Cerebral Hemispheres Contralaterally connected to body Sensory input & motor output Back Front o Left hemisphere connected to right side of body o Right hemisphere connected to left side of body Lateralization of Two Hemispheres Each hemisphere is specialized Left Language processing Right Emotion Spatial tasks Corpus Callosum Neural connection between the hemispheres Normally, with the corpus callosum intact, the hemispheres share information
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10/6/10 3 But… Split-brain operations cut the corpus callosum Treatment for severe epilepsy Hemispheres can no longer share information Taught us a lot about different functions of hemispheres Split-Brain Experiments Present information to just one hemisphere How can we test what the right hemisphere sees? How can we test what the left hemisphere sees? Hint: What does each hemisphere do well?
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10/6/10 4 Another Split-Brain Test Left hemisphere Input: Sees a ring Output: Language Can say, “ring” Right hemisphere Input: Sees a key Output: Left side of body (i.e., left hand) Why do we see these effects? Left hemisphere Good at language tasks Connected to right side of body Right hemisphere Good at spatial tasks Connected to left side of body Debunking Pop Psychology: Can you be “right-brained”? Are sculptors more right-brained than professors? How do we explain multitalented people? The divide between “left-brained” and “right-brained” people has been greatly exaggerated
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10/6/10 5 The Overall Experience Some functions may be localized, but… Complete experience comes from whole brain working together Studying the Brain Current Techniques Clinical Observation Brain Damage Lesions Lobotomy Electrical Stimulation and Recording Electroencephalography (EEG)
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10/6/10 6 Neuroimaging: Localization of Function Structure Computed Tomography (CT) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Function Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) BOLD response Neurons and Neurotransmitters How does the nervous system work? The star of the show: Neurons !
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