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LearningLectureforStudents3

LearningLectureforStudents3 - LEARNING Chapter 6 The...

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10/20/10 1 LEARNING Chapter 6 The Historical Context Psychology in the Early 20 th Century Mental processes reign supreme The emergence of psychoanalysis in Europe Meanwhile, in the rest of the world The rise of eugenics The ultimate theory of nature Why was intelligence associated with social class?
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10/20/10 2 Learning Theory Emerges Frustration with the study of the unconscious How can we know the unknowable? Behaviorism : Uncovering the general laws of learning, looking outside of the organism An argument for nurture Tabula rasa “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggar-man and thief -- regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocation, and race of his ancestors.” (Watson, 1924) Outline This time: An introduction to learning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning The neural basis of learning Next time: Review learning Memory! An Introduction to Learning
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10/20/10 3 What is learning? Change in organism’s behavior or thought as a result of experience Relatively enduring Allows us to adjust to new or changing environments Non-Associative Learning Habituation Unchanging stimulus Decreased response Dishabituation Return of original response level Sensitization Increased responsiveness to a stimulus I can learn too! Associative Learning Learning about relationships between events Classical Conditioning Signals Alarm signals food Passive Operant Conditioning Consequences Meowing rewarded with food Active participation of learner Our example for today: Thundersnow the kitten
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10/20/10 4 Classical conditioning PAVLOV’S DISCOVERY: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENT: STEP 1 Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) automatically elicits the unconditioned response (UCR) (neutral) Natural Response
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10/20/10 5 PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENT: STEP 2 Repeatedly pair neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Conditioning trials Acquisition Phase PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENT: STEP 3 Eventually, the conditioned stimulus (CS) alone elicits the conditioned response (CR) Test trial Successful Learning UCR VERSUS CR
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