Class2_FunctionStructurwNervous+System2

Class2_FunctionStructurwNervous+System2 - Outline Cells in...

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1 Structure and Function of Nervous System Outline • Cells in the nervous system – Neurons – Glia • Action Potential – Ion Channels – Polarization • Synaptic Signaling – Chemical – Electrical – Dendritic Figure 1.5 Levels of Analysis in Biological Psychology Neurons • Neurons are cells that transmit information • Neurons are composed of: – Cell body : contains nucleus and protein synthesizing machinery for rest of cell – Dendrites : extensions that receive information – Axon : extends from cell body, carries electrical potential, sends a chemical message to adjacent neurons Parts of the Neuron
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2 Glial cells • Originally thought to just hold together nerve cells (“glue”), it is becoming clear that glial cells have important effcts on neural transmission Astrocytes and Microglia • Astrocytes – Have distinct “star shape” – Can regulate neural transmission and blood flow • Microglia – Can move about within the brain – Migrate to sites of injury or disease Oligodendrocytes and Schwann Cells • Wrap axons with mylein • In central nervous system: oligodendrocytes • In peripheral nervous system: Schwann cells Myelination of axons Outline • Cells in the nervous system – Neurons – Glia • Action Potential – Ion Channels – Polarization • Synaptic Signaling – Chemical – Electrical – Dendritic Action Potentials Action potentials , or nerve impulses , are brief but large changes in membrane potential. Patterns of action potentials carry information to target cells.
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3 Action Potential • APs vary in frequency (a few pulses per second to a max of 1000 pulses per second) • APs have a refractory period (about 1 msec) • AP is “all or none” in nature (AP either occurs or it does not) Biological Basis of AP • Neuronal activity (and therefore behavior), is based on the movement of ions into and out of neurons • In a normal state, sodium (Na+) is kept out of the neuron while potassium (K+) is kept inside the cell – Sodium-potassium pump Chemical basis of action potential -Action potentials are produced by the movement of Na + ions into the cell. -After reaching a peak (40 mV), K+ channels
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2010 for the course PSC Psychology taught by Professor Cossowings during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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Class2_FunctionStructurwNervous+System2 - Outline Cells in...

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