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Class2_FunctionStructurwNervous+System2

Class2_FunctionStructurwNervous+System2 - Outline Cells in...

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1 Structure and Function of Nervous System Outline Cells in the nervous system – Neurons – Glia Action Potential – Ion Channels – Polarization Synaptic Signaling – Chemical – Electrical – Dendritic Figure 1.5 Levels of Analysis in Biological Psychology Neurons Neurons are cells that transmit information Neurons are composed of: – Cell body : contains nucleus and protein synthesizing machinery for rest of cell – Dendrites : extensions that receive information – Axon : extends from cell body, carries electrical potential, sends a chemical message to adjacent neurons Parts of the Neuron
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2 Glial cells Originally thought to just hold together nerve cells (“glue”), it is becoming clear that glial cells have important effcts on neural transmission Astrocytes and Microglia • Astrocytes – Have distinct “star shape” – Can regulate neural transmission and blood flow • Microglia – Can move about within the brain – Migrate to sites of injury or disease Oligodendrocytes and Schwann Cells Wrap axons with mylein In central nervous system: oligodendrocytes In peripheral nervous system: Schwann cells Myelination of axons Outline Cells in the nervous system – Neurons – Glia Action Potential – Ion Channels – Polarization Synaptic Signaling – Chemical – Electrical – Dendritic Action Potentials Action potentials , or nerve impulses , are brief but large changes in membrane potential. Patterns of action potentials carry information to target cells.
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3 Action Potential APs vary in frequency (a few pulses per second to a max of 1000 pulses per second) APs have a refractory period (about 1 msec) AP is “all or none” in nature (AP either occurs or it does not) Biological Basis of AP Neuronal activity (and therefore behavior), is based on the movement of ions into and out of neurons In a normal state, sodium (Na+) is kept out of the neuron while potassium (K+) is kept inside the cell – Sodium-potassium pump Chemical basis of action potential -Action potentials are produced by the movement of Na + ions into the cell.
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