05.03_Memory1

05.03_Memory1 - Remember these words:! Memory I Sour!...

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© S. J. Luck All rights reserved 1 © S. J. Luck All Rights Reserved Memory I • Sour • Candy • Sugar Aggie • Bitter • Good • Taste • Tooth • Nice • Honey • Soda • Chocolate • Heart • Cake • Tart • Pie Remember these words: From Roediger & McDermott (1995) Politically Correct Bedtime Stories • Memory tasks • The standard theory of memory structures • Working Memory • Dynamics of memory – Encoding – Retrieval – Modi±cations and distortions – Loftus & Palmer (1974) journal article • Brain systems underlying memory • Sour • Soda • Music • Aggie • Sweet • Yes (±rst word -- primacy effect) • Yes (middle of list, hard to remember) • No (irrelevant “lure”) • Yes (Von Restorff effect) • No (associated word -- false memory) Were these words in the list? • Recall – Serial recall – Free recall – Cued recall – Real-world examples? • Recognition – Real-world examples?
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© S. J. Luck All rights reserved 2 • It’s not obvious to the subject that memory is being tested – Memory plays an implicit role in the task • Priming – Speeded-response tasks – Perception without awareness (subliminal perception) – Word-stem completion • Procedural knowledge – Skills for which it is difFcult to describe exactly what it is that you know – Riding a bicycle, Mirror drawing • Concepts in memory are linked to related concepts • Activation of one concept (apple) will spread to related concepts (red) • It can then spread to the next “node” (Fre) – But the activation weakens as it spreads ±ire Engine House Red Banana ±ire Yellow Orange Apple Truck • The Lexical Decision Task: Say “yes” for words, “no” for non-words -- ignore red – Doctor – Nurse – Chair – Rask – Strong – Weak – Carpet – Lotion Reaction Time Fast Slow Related Word Non-word Unrelated Word • Subliminal = below limen (threshold/cutoff) • Example: Kunst-Wilson & Zajonc (1980) Exposure Phase 1 ms Duration Test Phase Unlimited Duration Which did you see before? Which do you like better? New Chance Old See Before? Like Better? • Say the Frst word that comes to mind when you see the following wordstems: – PRI_______ – SUB_______ – PRINCE, PRIZE, PRIDE – SUBMARINE, SUBTLE, SUBLIME • Sensory memory – Iconic memory – Echoic memory • Working memory – ±ormerly called “short-term memory” – Executive system + modality-speciFc storage systems • Long-term memory – Explicit memory: Semantic & episodic – Implicit memory: Priming & procedural knowledge
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© S. J. Luck All rights reserved 3 • Prior to 1960, many scientists noted that visual information seems to persist for a few hundred milliseconds after the offset of a stimulus – This was based on introspection, with no data • Example: Camera Fash in a dark room • The “iconic image” seems like a
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2010 for the course PSC PSC100 taught by Professor Luck during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.

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05.03_Memory1 - Remember these words:! Memory I Sour!...

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