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Unformatted text preview: S. J. Luck All rights reserved 1 M. Aly & S. J. Luck All Rights Reserved Memory III Memory is the most important function of the brain; without it, life would be a blank. Our knowledge is all based on memory. Every thought, every action, our very conception of personal identity, is based on memory. Without memory, all experience would be useless- F.W. Eldridge-Green Memory and Its Cultivation, 1900 In other words, what should I do so I can do well in my classes? Craik & Lockhart (1972) proposed that retention depends on levels of processing Deeper processing leads to better memory Example: Hyde & Jenkins, 1969 Subjects were presented with words and did one of three tasks Visual: Upper or lower case? Phonemic: Rhymes with log? Semantic: Judge the pleasantness of the word Subjects were then given a surprise memory test Performance was best for deep (semantic) encoding, worst for shallow (visual) encoding Problem 1: Levels of processing is circular -- we have no independent test of depth Problem 2: Effects of type of encoding may depend on type of retrieval (Morris et al., 1977) Encoding Task 1: Judge semantic consistency of sentence The _____ had a silver engine (train or eagle) Encoding Task 2: Rhyme judgement _____ rhymes with legal (train or eagle) Retrieval Task 1: Did you see this word? Semantic encoding led to better performance Retrieval Task 2: Did you see a word that rhymes with regal? Rhyme encoding led to better performance This is called encoding specicity If youre going to be tested on what the information sounds like, then shallow processing will do just ne But if youre going to be tested on meaning (which you are), you have to do elaborative, semantic encoding. Study the material in a way that leads it to be encoded in the manner that it will be useful at test Encoding specicity: what is stored in memory is specic not just the physical stimulus, but the stimulus + context Context includes what you think and understand about the stimulus If you encode something in a shallow way, and then at test you are asked about its meaning, you wont be able to remember anything about it what you encoded in memory (shallow, e.g. encoding rhymes with loading) wont match the information you need at test (what is the processing stage at which information enters storage into long-term memory?) State-dependent memory: Study on land or underwater; test on land or underwater Memory is best if you are tested in the same place you studied (underwater if you studied underwater; on land if you studied on land) Godden & Baddeley (1975) This also works if you just imagine the place youl be tested! (Smith, 1979) Make your study environment as similar to the test environment as you can (desk, chair, pencil, paper), or just think of this room while youre studying. (desk, chair, pencil, paper), or just think of this room while youre studying....
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2010 for the course PSC PSC100 taught by Professor Luck during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.
- Spring '10