Class12_Learning

Class12_Learning - Learning vs. Memory Learning and Memory...

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1 Learning and Memory Learning vs. Memory • Learning: how you acquire information • Memory: how that information is retained (can also refer to specific information stored in the brain) Levels of Analysis • Behavioral • Brain circuit • Cellular Outline • Learning – Associative – Nonassociative • Memories – Patient HM – Declarative vs. Procedural – Neural circuits • Cellular mechanisms of memory General Categories of Learning • Associative: learning that involves relations between events • Nonassociative: involves changes in responses to a single stimulus Associative Learning Classical conditioning : an initially neutral stimulus comes to predict a salient event that generates some response. Eventually the neutral stimulus generates the response.
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2 Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned stimulus • Unconditioned response • Conditioned stimulus • Conditioned response Associative Learning Instrumental conditioning : an association between an animal’s behavior and the consequences of that behavior • Often occurs via “trial and error” learning Operant Conditioning • Law of effect: the consequences of a behavior will determine whether that behavior is likely to be repeated • Shaping: reinforcement of behavior that successively approximates the desired response until that response is fully acquired Learning Clip Conditioning in Your Life Nonassociative Learning • Habituation: a decrease in response to a stimulus as it is repeated • Dishabituation: an increase in response to a stimulus that had been decreased by habituation • Habituation-dishabituation tests are used to determine social recognition abilities
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3 Social Interaction • Habituation- dishabituation test – Mouse is repeatedly exposed to the same mouse (or odor of the mouse) – Over time exploration decreases – When a novel mouse or odor is presented, exploration time increases Outline • Learning – Associative – Nonassociative • Memories – Patient HM – Declarative vs. Procedural – Neural circuits • Cellular mechanisms of memory Patient HM: Henry Molaison • Hit his head hard after being hit by a bicycle rider at age 9 • At 27, suffered from blackouts, convulsions and could no longer work • Surgery removed medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus, amygdala and some cortex 1926-2008 Patient HM: Follow up • Operation Sept. 1953 • Evaluated Apr. 1955 – Fewer seizures – Reported date as March 1953 – No memories formed since operation – IQ increased compared to pre-op Brenda Milner Suzanne Corkin Amnesia • Although seizures could be controlled, a
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Class12_Learning - Learning vs. Memory Learning and Memory...

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