Lecture2-ResearchMethods

Lecture2-ResearchMethods - 9/27/10 LECTURE OUTLINE CHAPTER...

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9/27/10 1 C HAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODS Lecture 2 (p. 64-101) Research Dog research methods! L ECTURE OUTLINE Why we need careful research design The scientific method Types of psychological study W HY WE NEED CAREFUL RESEARCH DESIGN M EET C LEVER H ANS WHAT DID CLEVER HANS REALLY LEARN? CLEVER HANS: A CAUTIONARY TALE Observer/experimenter expectancy effects Needed to be skeptical and test alternative hypotheses Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence Reliance on subjective impressions Not controlled observation by “blind” observers
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9/27/10 2 HOW MENTAL SHORTCUTS CAN GET US LOST Heuristic =Mental shortcuts Helps us quickly sort through information Works most but not all of the time Representative heuristic Base rate fallacy Availability heuristic Cognitive bias= A systematic error in thinking Confirmation bias Hindsight bias Overconfidence WHAT IS THE SOLUTION? The scientific method! Research =Scientific process involving systematic collection and analysis of data T HE SCIENTIFIC METHOD THE BIG PICTURE: SCIENTIFIC THEORIES Scientific theory =An explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world Good scientific theories Generate hypotheses (specific predications derived from theory) Lead to empirical research Objective measurements Are falsifiable TESTING THEORIES Theory Hypotheses Empirical research Confidence in theory increases Revise, refine the theory Confidence in theory decreases Discard the theory Findings support hypotheses Findings do not support hypotheses TESTING THEORIES Empirical research
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9/27/10 3 IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY Variable =Anything that can be measured and that can vary In research, either measured or manipulated Operational definition =Description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured Example: How do we study depression? May vary across studies Remember the jangle fallacy MORE ON OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Measure =A device that can detect the measurable events to which an operational definition refers How do we know we have created a good measure? ! Validity =Extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure Reliability =Consistency of measurement Test-retest reliability Interrater reliability T YPES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY PLANNING A STUDY Must answer 3 questions: Where? Where will my study take place?
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2010 for the course PSC PSC 001 taught by Professor Paoli during the Fall '09 term at UC Davis.

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Lecture2-ResearchMethods - 9/27/10 LECTURE OUTLINE CHAPTER...

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