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Unformatted text preview: CHEM 4511 PS 1 Fall 08 1. (A) 50 μm × 10,000 = 500,000 μm = 500 mm 2. No and No. If the structure is the same, they are the same and body cannot tell the difference. (E) Have 1000 μmol/L glucose and 20 μmol/L Hexokinase µ (B) Cell Radius: 25 μm × 104 ⇒ .0025 cm (1 cm3 = 1mL) Cell volume ⇒ π (.0025 cm)3 = 6.5 × 10‐8 mL = 6.5 × 10‐11 L Actin volume ⇒ radius = 1.8 nM = 1.8 × 10‐7cm v = π (1.8 × 10‐7cm)3 = 2.4 × 10‐20 mL = 2.4 × 10‐23 L . . L L # Actin per cell: = 2.7 × 1012 Actin molecules per cell (C) Mitochondria radius = .75 μm = 7.5 × 10‐5 cm v = π (7.5 × 10‐5cm)3 = 1.8 × 10‐12 mL = 1.8 × 10‐15 L . . L L # Mitochondria per cell: = 36111 Mitochondria per cell (D) Glucose present at 1 mm (mmol/L) 6.5 × 10‐11 L × . L µ L L = 50 glucose molecules per Hexokinase molecules 3. OH NH2 amine HO alcohol/hydroxyl OH OH alcohol/hydroxyl O
- phosphate O
- carboxylic acid O
- O P O H N NH3+ NH2 enol O alkene O - carboxylic acid O NH2 amine guanidinium alcohol / hydroxyl amide OH H N O O O
- OH HO OH carboxylic acid alcohol/ hydroxyls OH OH H O HO 4. (A) Amino Acid -O2C NH3+ R Fatty Acid • Amino group will protonate at lower pH Could separate based on charge. • Fatty acids also tend to be larger Could separate based on site (B) Nucleotide: e.g, N NH2 N Glucose: HO HO OH O OH OH = O3PO N O N HO OH 5. Dexedrine ⇒ enantiomerically pure (Either just the S or just the R enantiomer in the formulation) Benzedrine ⇒ Racemic mixture = equal amount of R and S present. Only one enantiomer is biologically active, so it would take twice total amount to achieve the same biological effect. 6. r e face si face Nucleotides: 2 negative charges; could separate based on charge. OH 7. OH r e face proR proS H H OH H H OH proS proR proS proR 8. Diastereotopic H H This is a chiral center enantiotopic OH see subst. test..... e.g OH D OH H D H OH H H OH H H OH H H OH H H OH OH mirror images of each other This is a chiral center O -O NH3 CH3 CH3 diastereotopic ...
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