Keller_SBM3_IM_02 - Chapter2 Overview .Customerbasedbrand...

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Chapter 2 Customer-Based Brand Equity Overview   This chapter defines the concept that is the focus of the book. Customer-based brand  equity (CBBE) is the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response  to the marketing of that brand. Brand knowledge is a function of awareness, which relates  to consumers’ ability to recognize or recall the brand, and image, which consists of  consumers’ perceptions of and associations for the brand. Building awareness requires  repeatedly exposing consumers to the brand as well as linking the brand in consumer  memory to its product category and to purchase, usage and consumption situations.  Creating a positive brand image requires establishing strong, favorable and unique  associations for the brand.  The chapter outlines the important contribution of brand knowledge to brand equity.  Brand knowledge is composed of brand awareness, which is itself a function of  recognition and recall, and brand image, which reflects the associations consumers hold  for the brand in memory. Brand awareness is important because 1) it is a necessary condition for inclusion in the  set of brands being considered for purchase, 2) in low-involvement decision settings it  can be a sufficient condition for choice, and 3) it influences the nature and strength of  associations that comprise the brand image. Awareness can be heightened by increasing  consumer exposure to the brand and by linking the brand to product category,  consumption and usage situations. A brand’s image reflects all the associations consumers have for a brand in memory. The  strength, favorability and uniqueness of the associations affect the response consumers  will have to the brand and to its supporting marketing activities. Associations can be  about attributes and benefits of the brand, or attitudes toward it. Attributes, which are  descriptive features of a brand, can relate to the actual physical components and  ingredients of a brand (product-related) or to such things as the price, imagery, feelings  and experiences, and personality associated with the brand (non-product-related).  Benefits derived from a brand may relate to the functional advantages it provides, the  symbolic information it conveys, or the experiential feelings it produces. Attitudes, which  8
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represent the highest level of brand associations, reflect consumers’ overall evaluations  of a brand and, consequently, often determine their behavior toward it.  The strength of associations depends upon the relevance of information consumers 
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