12-10-2010 - 2-nd Lecture Accelerators LHC the Large Hadron...

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1 2-nd Lecture z What do they do at CERN? (2 movies) ¾ Producing antimatter? ¾ Aim of LHC o Higgs z How do accelerators work? ¾ And why do we need them? ¡ resolving structures (ZOOM sequence) ¡ trading energy for mass ¾ Linear accelerators/collider ¾ Circular accelerators/collider z Accelerator chain for LHC (movie) z The Beam (buckets and bunches) ¾ LHC parameters z Luminosity z Magnets Accelerators: LHC – the Large Hadron Collider @CERN 2 Example: LEP collider z Factory for the production of the Z boson ¾ m Z = 91.2 GeV/c 2 ¾ Collide electrons and positrons with an energy of 45.6 GeV each. ¾ Relativistic J -factor: J = E/mc 2 = 45.6/0.000511 | 10 5 ¾ During 6 years of LEP phase 1 (1989-1995) about 20 million Z bosons were produced. We will answer later: How many e + e 0 o Z oPP events does an experiment obtain in one year if the cross-section for this process is 2 nb and the luminosity is 10 31 cm -2 s -1 ? Assume that the collider only runs 1/3 of the time. 1 nanobarn = 10 0 33 cm 2 . Answer: 200 000 Trading energy for mass Large Electron Positron collider
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3 Higgs boson production at LEP z Physicists wanted to discover the Higgs particle at LEP z Assume m Higgs = 114 GeV/c 2 z How much energy does one need for the beams?
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12-10-2010 - 2-nd Lecture Accelerators LHC the Large Hadron...

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