14 - Chapter-14 - Geometric Design Manual-2002 Chapter 14...

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Chapter 14 Geometric Design Manual-2002 Safety Ethiopian Roads Authority Page 14-1 14 S AFETY AND M ISCELLANEOUS D ESIGN I TEMS 14.1 Introduction Road user safety has economic consequences in terms of property damage and loss of earnings or production resulting from physical injury, in addition to the motional consequences of pain, suffering and death. Safety and economy are the foundations on which competent design rests. Inadequate consideration of either will automatically result in inadequate design. A checklist of engineering design features that affect road safety is given in Figure 14-1. Miscellaneous design items in this chapter include safety rest areas and scenic overlooks, bus lay-byes and parking bays, parking lanes, public utilities, railway grade crossings, safety barriers, and emergency escape ramps. 14.2 Safety Rest Areas and Scenic Overlooks Safety rest areas and scenic overlooks are desirable elements of the complete highway development and are provided for the safety and convenience of the highway user. A safety rest area is a roadside area with parking facilities separated from the roadway, provided for the motorist to stop and rest for short periods. The rest area shall provide the user with an opportunity to halt in an atmosphere that affords a distinct change from the monotony of driving. A scenic overlook is a roadside area provided for motorists to park their vehicles, beyond the shoulder, primarily for viewing the scenery or for taking photographs in safety. The attraction of such a facility depends upon the presence of scenic and historical points of interest. The facilities shall be designed so as to avoid marring the landscape. Site selection for safety rest areas and scenic overlooks should consider the scenic quality of the area, accessibility, and adaptability to development. Site plans should be developed that should include proper and safe location of entrances and exits, road signs and markings, acceleration and deceleration lanes as required, and parking areas for cars and trucks. They may also include certain types of rest facilities (benches, tables, shelters, drinking fountains, restrooms). Where such facilities are specified, the average distance between rest areas shall be 15- 25 km. As far as possible, locations for such facilities shall be avoided where adjacent roadway gradients are in excess of 4%. 14.3 Bus Lay-Byes and Parking Bays Rural Bus lay-byes serve to remove buses from the traffic lanes. Parking bays are provided for taxis and other vehicles to stop outside of the roadway. The location and design of lay-
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Chapter 14 Safety Geometric Design Manual-2002 Page 14-2 Ethiopian Roads Authority byes should provide ready access in the safest and most efficient manner possible. Providing lay-byes clear of the lanes for through traffic can considerably reduced the interference between buses, taxis and other traffic. To be fully effective, lay-byes should incorporate
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14 - Chapter-14 - Geometric Design Manual-2002 Chapter 14...

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