# AC Theory - AC Theory To determine the frequency of AC...

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AC Theory To determine the frequency of AC current

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Introduction to alternating current VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS We know that there are two types of current and voltage, that is, direct current and voltage and alternating current and voltage. If a graph is constructed showing the amplitude of a dc voltage across the terminals of a battery with respect to time, it will appear in figure 1-1 view A. The dc voltage is shown to have a constant amplitude. Some voltages go through periodic changes in amplitude like those shown in figure 1-1 view B. The pattern which results when these changes in amplitude with respect to time are plotted on graph paper is known as a WAVEFORM. Figure 1-1 view B shows some of the common electrical waveforms. Of those illustrated, the sine wave will be dealt with most often.
Figure 1-1. - Voltage waveforms: (A). Direct voltage; (B) Alternating voltage.

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The sine wave illustrated in figure 1-1 view B is a plot of a current which changes amplitude and direction. Although there are several ways of producing this current, the method based on the principles of electromagnetic induction is by far the easiest and most common method in use.
Basic Terminology Direct Current (DC) Current flow is unidirectional and of constant magnitude (battery) Alternating Current (AC) Magnitude & direction of current flow periodically change Each sequence called a cycle Frequency is cycles per second (Hz)

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What is Alternating Current? Alternating Current vs. Direct Current The figure to the right shows the schematic diagram of a very basic DC circuit. It consists of nothing more than a source (a producer of electrical energy) and a load (whatever is to be powered by that electrical energy). The source can be any electrical source: a chemical battery, an electronic power supply, a mechanical generator, or any other possible continuous source of electrical energy. For simplicity, we represent the source in this figure as a battery. At the same time, the load can be
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AC Theory - AC Theory To determine the frequency of AC...

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