CSE527-l2

CSE527-l2 - Image Formation Light Reflectance Image Capture...

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2/3/10 1 Image Formation • Light • Reflectance • Image Capture – Camera – Lens – Sensor – Projection models – Camera System Parameters Cameras - a brief history • From the latin Camera Obscura - Dark Chamber • The cameras of the 16th century were literally dark rooms with a small opening on one side • The first cameras were used by painters who would literally sit in the box and trace the outline of the image on their canvases
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2/3/10 2 The invention of the lens • The first major improvement occurred in the 16th century when Giovanni Battista della Porta added a lens to the design • The lens improved the light gathering power of the device so brighter images were possible Photography • Film – The first film was developed by Niepce (1822) who took the worlds first photograph of a farmyard in central France – it required an exposure time of eight hours. – He joined forces with Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre who improved the process. His exposures only required half an hour and were quite sharp. The Worlds First Known Photo?
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2/3/10 3 Photographs (Niepce, “La Table Servie,” 1822) Milestones: Daguerreotypes (1839) Photographic Film (Eastman, 1889) Cinema (Lumière Brothers, 1895) Color Photography (Lumière Brothers, 1908) Television (Baird, Farnsworth, Zworykin, 1920s) CCD Devices (1970) Collection Harlingue-Viollet. . The anatomy of a modern camera • Lens • Shutter (exposure time) • Diaphragm (aperture) • Focusing Control
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2/3/10 4 The Camera of the Mind – Components of the human eye • Pupil • Lens • Occiliary muscle • retina • fovea • blind spot The Human Eye Helmoltz’s Schematic Eye Reproduced by permission, the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. A.L. Nowicki, “Stereoscopy.” Manual of Photogrammetry, Thompson, Radlinski, and Speert (eds.), third edition, 1966.
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2/3/10 5 The Retina – There are two types of photosensitive cells in the retina, rods and cones – Cones come in three flavors which exhibit different sensitivities to different wavelengths of light, red green and blue. – Rods are not sensitive to variations in wavelength but they are more sensitive than cones and can pick up much dimmer light – The fovea is populated entirely by cones. More Cells – Ganglion Cells • The photosensitive cells transmit their information to ganglion cells which in turn transmit information to the brain via the optic nerve – Numbers of cells • There are approximately 6 million cone cells, 120 million rods and 1 million optic nerve fibers.
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2/3/10 6 The distribution of rods and cones across the retina Reprinted from Foundations of Vision, by B. Wandell, Sinauer Associates, Inc., (1995). © 1995 Sinauer Associates, Inc. Cones in the
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CSE527-l2 - Image Formation Light Reflectance Image Capture...

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