CSE502_lec16+17+18-SMPS10

CSE502_lec16+17+18-SMPS10 - CSE 502 Graduate Computer...

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CSE 502 Graduate Computer Architecture Lec 16-18 – Symmetric MultiProcessing Larry Wittie Computer Science, StonyBrook University http://www.cs.sunysb.edu/~cse502 and ~lw Slides adapted from David Patterson, UC-Berkeley cs252-s06
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4/5-12/10 CSE502-S10, Lec 16-18-SMP 2 Outline MP Motivation SISD v. SIMD v. MIMD Centralized vs. Distributed Memory Challenges to Parallel Programming Consistency, Coherency, Write Serialization Write Invalidate Protocol Example Conclusion Reading Assignment: Chapter 4 MultiProcessors
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4/5-12/10 CSE502-S10, Lec 16-18-SMP 3 1 10 100 1000 10000 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Performance (vs. VAX-11/780) 25%/year 52%/year ??%/year Uniprocessor Performance (SPECint) VAX : 25%/year 1978 to 1986 RISC + x86: 52%/year 1986 to 2002; ??%/year 2002 to present From Hennessy and Patterson, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach , 4th edition, 2006 3X
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4/5-12/10 CSE502-S10, Lec 16-18-SMP 4 Déjà vu, again? Every 10 yrs, parallelism: key! “… today’s processors … are nearing an impasse as technologies approach the speed of light..” David Mitchell, The Transputer: The Time Is Now ( 1989 ) Transputer had bad timing (Uniprocessor performance in 1990s) In 1990s, procrastination rewarded: 2X seq. perf. / 1.5 years “We are dedicating all of our future product development to multicore designs. … This is a sea change in computing” Paul Otellini, President, Intel ( 2005 ) All microprocessor companies switch to MP (2X CPUs / 2 yrs) Now, procrastination penalized: sequential performance - only 2X / 5 yrs Manufacturer/Year AMD/’05 Intel/’06 IBM/’04 Sun/’05 Sun/’07 Processors/chip 2 2 2 8 8 Threads/Processor 1 2 2 4 8 Threads/chip 2 4 4 32 64
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4/5-12/10 CSE502-S10, Lec 16-18-SMP 5 Other Factors Multiprocessors Work Well Growth in data-intensive applications Data bases, file servers, web servers, … (All: many separate tasks) Growing interest in servers, server performance Increasing desktop performance less important Outside of graphics Improved understanding in how to use multiprocessors effectively Especially servers, where significant natural TLP (separate tasks) Huge cost $$$ advantage of leveraging design investment by replication Rather than unique designs for each higher performance chip (a fast new design costs billions of dollars in R&D and factories)
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4/5-12/10 CSE502-S10, Lec 16-18-SMP 6 Flynn’s Taxonomy Flynn classified by data and control streams in 1966 SIMD Data Level Parallelism (problem: locked step) MIMD Thread Level Parallelism (independent steps) MIMD popular because Flexible: N programs or 1 multithreaded program Cost-effective: same MicroProcUnit in desktop PC & MIMD Single Instruction Stream, Single Data Stream ( SISD ) ( Uniprocessors ) Single Instruction Stream, Multiple Data Stream SIMD (Single ProgCtr: CM-2) Multiple Instruction Stream, Single Data Stream ( MISD ) (??? Arguably, no designs) Multiple Instruction Stream, Multiple Data Stream MIMD (Clusters, SMP servers) M.J. Flynn, "Very High-Speed Computers", Proc. of the IEEE , V 54, 1900-1909, Dec. 1966.
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4/5-12/10 CSE502-S10, Lec 16-18-SMP 7 Back to Basics
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