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Unformatted text preview: Distinctive Image Features from Scale-Invariant Keypoints David G. Lowe Computer Science Department University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C., Canada firstname.lastname@example.org January 5, 2004 Abstract This paper presents a method for extracting distinctive invariant features from images that can be used to perform reliable matching between different views of an object or scene. The features are invariant to image scale and rotation, and are shown to provide robust matching across a a substantial range of affine dis- tortion, change in 3D viewpoint, addition of noise, and change in illumination. The features are highly distinctive, in the sense that a single feature can be cor- rectly matched with high probability against a large database of features from many images. This paper also describes an approach to using these features for object recognition. The recognition proceeds by matching individual fea- tures to a database of features from known objects using a fast nearest-neighbor algorithm, followed by a Hough transform to identify clusters belonging to a sin- gle object, and finally performing verification through least-squares solution for consistent pose parameters. This approach to recognition can robustly identify objects among clutter and occlusion while achieving near real-time performance. Accepted for publication in the International Journal of Computer Vision, 2004. 1 1 Introduction Image matching is a fundamental aspect of many problems in computer vision, including object or scene recognition, solving for 3D structure from multiple images, stereo correspon- dence, and motion tracking. This paper describes image features that have many properties that make them suitable for matching differing images of an object or scene. The features are invariant to image scaling and rotation, and partially invariant to change in illumination and 3D camera viewpoint. They are well localized in both the spatial and frequency domains, re- ducing the probability of disruption by occlusion, clutter, or noise. Large numbers of features can be extracted from typical images with efficient algorithms. In addition, the features are highly distinctive, which allows a single feature to be correctly matched with high probability against a large database of features, providing a basis for object and scene recognition. The cost of extracting these features is minimized by taking a cascade filtering approach, in which the more expensive operations are applied only at locations that pass an initial test. Following are the major stages of computation used to generate the set of image features: 1. Scale-space extrema detection: The first stage of computation searches over all scales and image locations. It is implemented efficiently by using a difference-of-Gaussian function to identify potential interest points that are invariant to scale and orientation....
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