Chapter 2 Notes - Molecular Interactions

Chapter 2 Notes - Molecular Interactions - Electrons are im...

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Electrons are important in covalent bonds, ion formation, capture and transfer of free energy, and the formation of destructive free radicals - Free radicals contain one unpaired electron. - Hydroxyl free radicals and superoxide ions are common free radicals. Antioxidants can prevent damage to our cells by giving up electrons without becoming free radicals. - Occur naturally in fruits and vegetables. - Vitamins C and E are examples One water molecule can hydrogen bond with as many as four other water molecules. - Water molecules can line up with their neighbors in a somewhat ordered fashion. - This type of arrangement is responsible for water’s surface tension , the attractive force between water molecules that causes water to form spherical droplets when falling or to bead up when spilled onto a nonabsorbent surface. - These forces also make it difficult to separate water molecules (picking up a wet glass that is “stuck” to a slick table top by a thin film of water). Four major biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleotides. First three: used by the body for energy and as building blocks for cellular components Nucleotides: used for DNA/RNA, ATP and even cAMP (regulating metabolism) Monomeric unit for carbohydrates: monosaccharides. - Five carbon example: ribose - Six carbon example: glucose Glycogen and starch are storage forms for glucose in animals and plants, respectively Cellulose is also in plants, and chitin is in invertebrate animals. Lipids – nonpolar; not soluble in water. - Fats if solid at room temperature - Oils if liquid at room temperature. - Fatty acids: saturated if there are no double bonds between carbons (palmitic acid) - Unsaturated: one or more double bonds between carbons - Saturation solid at room temperature. Saturated fats contribute to development of clogged arteries. Cholesterol: source of steroids in the human body - Basis for a number of important hormones, like prostaglandin Proteins – the most versatile biomolecules - The human body can synthesize all but nine amino acids (which are essential , since these nine must be obtained from dietary proteins) - Amino group adjoining to a carboxyl group results in a peptide bond between two amino acids. Example of primary structure: thyrotropin-releasing hormone, a small peptide in the brain: glutamic acid-
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course CBN 356 taught by Professor Merill during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter 2 Notes - Molecular Interactions - Electrons are im...

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