Chapter 2 Notes - Molecular Interactions

Chapter 2 Notes - Molecular Interactions - Electrons are im...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Electrons are important in covalent bonds, ion formation, capture and transfer of free energy, and the formation of destructive free radicals - Free radicals contain one unpaired electron. - Hydroxyl free radicals and superoxide ions are common free radicals. Antioxidants can prevent damage to our cells by giving up electrons without becoming free radicals. - Occur naturally in fruits and vegetables. - Vitamins C and E are examples One water molecule can hydrogen bond with as many as four other water molecules. - Water molecules can line up with their neighbors in a somewhat ordered fashion. - This type of arrangement is responsible for water’s surface tension , the attractive force between water molecules that causes water to form spherical droplets when falling or to bead up when spilled onto a nonabsorbent surface. - These forces also make it difficult to separate water molecules (picking up a wet glass that is “stuck” to a slick table top by a thin film of water). Four major biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleotides. First three: used by the body for energy and as building blocks for cellular components Nucleotides: used for DNA/RNA, ATP and even cAMP (regulating metabolism) Monomeric unit for carbohydrates: monosaccharides. - Five carbon example: ribose - Six carbon example: glucose Glycogen and starch are storage forms for glucose in animals and plants, respectively Cellulose is also in plants, and chitin is in invertebrate animals. Lipids – nonpolar; not soluble in water. - Fats if solid at room temperature - Oils if liquid at room temperature. - Fatty acids: saturated if there are no double bonds between carbons (palmitic acid) - Unsaturated: one or more double bonds between carbons - Saturation solid at room temperature. Saturated fats contribute to development of clogged arteries. Cholesterol: source of steroids in the human body - Basis for a number of important hormones, like prostaglandin Proteins – the most versatile biomolecules - The human body can synthesize all but nine amino acids (which are essential , since these nine must be obtained from dietary proteins) - Amino group adjoining to a carboxyl group results in a peptide bond between two amino acids. Example of primary structure: thyrotropin-releasing hormone, a small peptide in the brain: glutamic acid-
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 4

Chapter 2 Notes - Molecular Interactions - Electrons are im...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online