Chapter 14 Notes - Cardiovascular Physiology

Chapter 14 Notes - Cardiovascular Physiology - General...

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General overview: pressure generated in the heart propels blood through the system continuously. Oxygen is picked up at the lungs and nutrients in the intestine; these are delivered to the body’s cells while simultaneously removing cellular wastes for excretion. - Also plays an important role in cell-to-cell communication and in defending the body against foreign invaders. Primary function: transport of materials to and from all parts of the body. - These materials can enter the body from the external environment (like nutrients, water and gases), or they can be materials already in the body that move from cell to cell, or wastes that the cells eliminate. Oxygen enters the body at the exchange surface of the lungs; nutrients/water are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium . - It is important for cells of the body to retain oxygen, especially neurons in the brain. - The brain has high sensitivity to hypoxia ; our body does everything possible to maintain cerebral blood flow (even if it means depriving other cells of oxygen first) Cell to cell communication – hormones that are secreted into the bloodstream must be carried in the blood to their targets. Nutrients (like glucose from the liver and fatty acids from adipose tissue) must be transported to metabolically active cells. Antibodies/white blood cells patrol the circulation to help intercept foreign invaders. CO2 is picked up, as well as metabolic wastes, and is transported to the lungs and kidneys for excretion (respectively) - Some waste products need to be processed in the liver before being excreted. - Heat starts in the core of the body and dissipates to the skin. Septum – central wall in the heart (divides the heart into right and left halves) - So blood does not mix from one side with the other. Cyanosis – when low-oxygen blood can impart a bluish color around the mouth and under the fingernails General Blood flow: Deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium from the superior/inferior vena cavae through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle through the pulmonary semilunar valve and pulmonary artery to the lungs blood gets oxygenated through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium through the bicuspid (mitral) valve into the left ventricle through the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta ascending arteries for flow to the head/arms, or descending arteries for everything underneath the heart. - As blood passes through the capillaries, it delivers oxygen to the tissues via diffusion. When the blood returns to the heart through veins, it is deoxygenated. - From the aorta arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins heart. - Coronary artery – branch from the aorta that nourishes the heart itself . From these arteries, the blood flows through the coronary capillaries, then into the coronary veins, which empty directly into the right atrium at the coronary sinus .
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- Renal arteries – branch of abdominal aorta that supplies blood to the kidneys
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course CBN 356 taught by Professor Merill during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter 14 Notes - Cardiovascular Physiology - General...

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