Reproductive Physiology

Reproductive Physiology - The scrotum (bag of skin...

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The scrotum (bag of skin containing the male gonads – the testicles) is important for temperature regulation. Sperm synthesis in the testes must occur a few degrees below normal body temperature. - This is why the testes are located outside of the body - Scrotum relaxation facilitates cooling of the testes - Cold environments cause the scrotum to contract, pulling the testes up against the body to warm them. Testes – responsible for producing sperm (spermatogenesis) and secreting male sex hormones (i.e. testosterone or other androgens) into the bloodstream. Seminiferous tubules – site of spermatogenesis - Sustenacular/Sertoli cells in the testes protect and nurture developing sperm - Interstitial/Leydig cells in the testes are responsible for testosterone synthesis . Epididymis – where the sperm empties into Vas deferens – where the epididymis empties into The vas deferens leads to the ejaculatory duct , which projects sperm into the urethra , which eventually leads to the exterior environment of the penis Mnemonic: SEVEN UP (N is nothing) - Seminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra, penis Seminal vesicles – located on the posterior of the urinary bladder - Secrete most of the semen into the ejaculatory duct. - Semen nourishes the sperm (produced by seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral glands – all accessory glands ) Seminal vesicles produce mostly fructose and nourish sperm The prostate gland produces coagulant, which allows semen to coagulate after ejaculation Bulbourethral glands lubricate the urethra: they neutralize acids in male urethra and in the female vagina . Penile erection facilitates deposition of semen near the opening of the uterus during intercourse. - The corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum contain erectile tissue in males, whereas the clitoris and labia minora contain erectile tissue in females. 3 stages to the male and female sexual acts Arousal – dependent upon parasympathetic nervous input - Erection involves dilation of arteries supplying the erectile tissue (causes swelling, which obstructs venous outflow) - Lubrication is also parasympathetically controlled: the bulbourethral glands secrete “pre- semen” - Clitoris and labia minora contain erectile tissue (both become engorged with blood due to arterial dilation to these tissues)
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- Greater vestibular glands lubricate the clitoris. Orgasm – stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. - Emission refers to the propulsion of sperm into the urethra - Ejaculation refers to propulsion of sperm out of the urethra via rhythmic contractions of muscles Emission + ejaculation = male orgasm Resolution – return to the normal, unstimulated state. -
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Reproductive Physiology - The scrotum (bag of skin...

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