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Periodic Trends and Bonding

Periodic Trends and Bonding - Nuclear shielding when each...

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Nuclear shielding – when each filled shell between the nucleus and valence electrons protects the valence electrons from the full effect of positively charged protons in the nucleus. With progression across any period, the number of protons increases. their total pull on the outermost electrons increases too. - Valence electrons are more and more tightly bound to the atom because they feel a greater pull towards the nucleus. Atomic radius decreases from left to right. - When we move down a group, new shells are added and the valence electrons experience increased shielding. - Valence electrons are less tightly bound Radius increases due to increased shielding (i.e. there are more “shields” to protect the valence electrons from the positive charge of the nucleus) Anions are bigger than neutral atoms, cations are smaller - Reasoning: radius decreases as electrons are removed because the ones that are left are drawn in more closely to the nucleus. Ionization energy increases from left to right.
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