Solutions

Solutions - Solvation solute molecules being surrounded by...

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Solvation – solute molecules being surrounded by solvent - If the solvent is water, it is called hydration, and the solution is aqueous A couple examples of a “solution” - Alloy – a solid in a solid - Seltzer water – An example of gas in a liquid - A solid in a liquid (like salt in water) Concentrated solution – greater amount of solute per unit volume - Compare to a dilute solution Saturated – a solution in which no more solute will dissolve. - We have reached the molar solubility of the solute for that particular solvent Example: BaSO 4 (s)  Ba 2+ aq + SO 4 2- aq - When we have become saturated, addition of either ion will cause precipitation of the solid - The reverse process is called dissolution Solubility refers to a particular amount of solute that will saturate a particular solvent. - Varies with temperature - With most solids in liquids, increasing the temperature generally increases the solubility of that particular solute in the solvent Molarity: moles/L - Changes in temperature or pressure causes changes in volume, which would cause changes in molarity Molality: moles of solute/kg of solvent - Independent of pressure and temperature changes. Mole fraction with solutions: moles of solute/total moles in solution Like dissolves like polar solutes will dissolve in polar solvents, nonpolar in nonpolar, acidic in acidic, etc. Solutes that dissociate completely are called strong electrolytes (good conductors of electricity) - Those that remain ion-paired are called weak electrolytes . Van’t Hoff factor –
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Solutions - Solvation solute molecules being surrounded by...

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