chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Infancy and Childhood During...

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Chapter 14 Infancy and Childhood - During infancy a baby grows from newborn to toddler, and during childhood from toddler to teenager Physical Development - Brain Development o Inside the mother’s womb, the baby’s nerve cells are developing at a rate of almost ¼ million per minute o Developing brain cortex overproduces neurons, number peaks at 28 weeks and subsides to stable 23 billion or so at birth. .. on the day of birth, baby has as many brain cells as it will ever have o Nervous system at birth is immature. .. after birth, the branching neural networks that allow you to walk, talk and remember had wild growth spurt o Ages 3-6 most rapid growth occurred in frontal lobes, which enable rational planning . .. explains why toddlers show a developing ability to control their attention and behaviour o Last cortical area to develop--- the association areas; those areas linked with memory, thinking and language o Fibre pathways supporting language and agility proliferate in puberty, after which a pruning process shuts down excess connections and strengthens othrs o Maturation: orderly sequence of biological growth processes Standing before walking Using nouns before adjectives o Genetic tendencies are inborn, but sever deprivation or abuse can retard development and ample parental experiences of talking and reading will help sculpt neural connections o Maturation sets the basic course of development; experience adjusts it
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Chapter 14 Infancy and Childhood - Motor Development o Developing brain enables physical coordination o The sequence of physical (motor) development is universal with few occasional exceptions o Going on all fours before standing, rolling over before they sit are maturation of the nervous system not imitation o There are individual differences in timing. .. ie. In US 25% of babies by month 11 are able to walk etc. The recommended infant back-to-sleep position (put babies to sleep on their backs to reduce risk of a smothering crib death) has been associated with later crawling but not later walking o Genes play a major role in motor development Identical twins most often start sitting up or walking on the same day o Maturation including rapid development of the cerebellum at the back of the brain creates our readiness to learn walking at about age 1. .. experience beforehand has a limited effect, true for other skills such as bowel & bladder control - Maturation and Infant Memory o We seldom remember before 3 rd birthday Called infantile amnesia by age 4/5 usually childhood amnesia is giving way to remembered experiences memory was processing information even though we don’t remember anything before age 4 o even into adolescence the brain areas underlying memory such as the hippocampus and frontal lobes continue to mature
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Chapter 14 Infancy and Childhood o when a baby was linked to a mobile, it began to kick more, which showed contrary to popular belief at the time that babies were capable of learning (they learned the link between moving legs and moving mobile)
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course PSYCH PSYCH101 taught by Professor John during the Fall '09 term at Waterloo.

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chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Infancy and Childhood During...

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