chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Adulthood and Reflections on...

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Chapter 16 Adulthood and Reflections on Developmental Issues Physical development - Physical abilities- muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness and cardiac output are at the peak in the mid twenties. .. but decline afterwards - Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood o aging also brings a gradual decline in fertility for a woman 35-39 chances of getting pregnant after a single act of intercourse are only half of for a woman 19-26 o menopause is a women’s foremost biological sign of aging o men experience no equivalence to menopause – no cessation of fertility no sharp drop in sex hormones. . but they do experience a gradual decrease in sperm count, testosterone level and speed of erection and ejaculation - Physical changes in later life o Life expectancy Increased from 49 (1950) to 67 (2004) and to 80 in some developed countries This increasing life expectancy combines with decreasing birthrates to make older adults a bigger and bigger population segment o Increases demand for cruise ships, hearing aids, retirement villages/homes Life expectancy for males and females differ as well Although for every 126 male embryos that begin life, there are only 1000 But sex ratio is down to 105 males for every 100 females at birth During first year, male infants death rates exceed females by one fourth Women outlive men 4 years world wide and 5/6 years in Canada, US and Australia Peoples chromosome tips wear out (called telomeres) with age (especially when accentuated by smoking, obesity or stress). .. with these protective tips shortened aging cells may ie without being replaced with a perfect genetic replica Human spirit also affects life expectancy . .. (ie. Depression/chronic anger increase risk for ill health and pre-mature death) Researchers have found a death-deferral phenomenon
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Chapter 16 Adulthood and Reflections on Developmental Issues o Death rates increase when people reach their birthdays as it did for those who survived the milestone first day of the new millennium o Sensory Abilities Visual sharpness diminishes, distance perception and adaptation to changes in light level are less acute Muscle strength, reaction time and stamina diminish noticeably, vision, smell and hearing as well With age, pupil shrinks and lens become less transparent reducing amount of light reaching retina 65 y/o only receives 1/3 of light ad 20 y/o does o Health Body’s immune system weakens making them more susceptible to life- threatening ailments such as cancer and pneumonias However, thanks to lifetime accumulation of antibodies, those over 65 experience less short term ailments such as flu and colds Older people take more time to solve perceptual puzzles and even to remember names. .. as our brain is slowing our neural processing Brain regions important to memory begin to atrophy during aging. .. in young adulthood , a small gradual net loss of brain cells begins contributing by age 80
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chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Adulthood and Reflections on...

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