Lecture_2

Lecture_2 - Introduction to Sociology Part MacroPart I...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Sociology Part MacroPart I: Macro-level Social Phenomena Lecture 2: Population Monday, January 26 MacroMacro-Level Social Phenomena • Population growth – resource scarcity, the role of subsistence technology, population composition (social demography, development sociology) (social • Specialization/rationalization/bureaucratization – the division of labor, its consequences for social solidarity, the emergence of order and hierarchy (sociology (sociology of work, organizational sociology) • Industrialization and post-industrialization – shift from agricultural then from from manufacturing productive activities, changes in technology (economic (economic sociology, development sociology) • Urbanization and segregation – how people are spatially distributed (urban (urban sociology, social demography) • Power, inequality, and conflict – unequal distribution of resources and its consequences (social stratification, political sociology) (social • Discrimination – prejudicial/unfair treatment of people based on their attributes (sociology of race, gender studies, social stratification) (sociology 7000 WORLD POPULATION (MILLIONS) 6000 5000 4000 3000 3000 2000 1000 0 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Malthus YEAR Malthusian Malthusian Theory An An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) (1798) - Main concern: resource scarcity Malthus - Carrying capacity: the number of individuals in a given place that can be supported by its natural given resource resource limits The problem: Whereas population growth Whereas occurs at geometric rates, food production increases at arithmetic rates Malthusian Malthusian Catastrophe Population Size Carrying capacity TIME Malthusian Malthusian Catastrophe The The problem: Whereas population growth occurs Whereas at geometric rates, food production increases at arithmetic rates Malthus Malthus Direct consequence: carrying capacity is exceeded, exceeded, and resource scarcity occurs Indirect Indirect consequence: inequality increases Why the Poor are Affected Most - Food prices increase (due to increasing demand relative to supply), making it especially difficult for the poor to buy food - The larger size of the population means that labor is more plentiful plentiful and therefore cheaper - Result: poor laborers must work harder to be able to afford the same amount of food as before Labor surplus Labor wages decline Employers hire more workers Increased food supply Food prices decline Population Population growth growth Food scarcity Food prices increase Laborer distress Decline in reproduction Population stagnates Other Mechanisms of Population Control “Premature “Premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.” • Famine • Natural disaster • Disease • Infanticide • War • Murder Other Mechanisms of Population Control “Premature “Premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.” • • • • Famine Natural disaster Disease Abstinence • • • • Infanticide War Murder Contraception NeoNeo-Malthusian Theories Lenski’s Lenski’s theory of societal evolution Population Population growth Lenski Innovation in subsistence technology technology Huntergatherer Horticultural Agrarian Industrial Postindustrial Criticisms Criticisms of Malthusian Theories - Malthus ignores the role of technology in improving society’s ability to produce food - Malthus underestimates society’s ability to adapt to population population-related challenges (e.g., greater access to markets, markets, better transportation networks) - Fertility rates do not always increase geometrically – or even arithmetically, for that matter Demographic Demographic Transition Theory - Societies tend to transition (eventually) from a state of high mortality and high fertility to a state of low mortality and low fertility - The drop in mortality rates will begin prior to the drop in fertility fertility rates The The Demographic Transition 30 DEATHS per 1,000 people, per year BIRTHS per 1,000 people, per year 25 20 15 10 Mortality rate rate Fertility Fertility rate 40 30 20 10 5 0 0 Time The The Demographic Transition 30 DEATHS per 1,000 people, per year BIRTHS per 1,000 people, per year 25 20 15 10 Mortality rate rate Fertility Fertility rate 40 30 20 10 5 PHASE I 0 PHASE II PHASE III PHASE IV 0 Time Why the Fertility Decline? 1) Parents’ fertility decisions target a desired number of 1) children. If mortality is high, they need to have more children to meet their target 2) In advanced societies, kids are expensive 3) In advanced societies, parenthood is delayed for education 4) Improved and more widely available contraceptive technology A. United States B. B. Ethiopia C. Italy D. India ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course SOC 1101 taught by Professor Mclaughlin during the Spring '07 term at Cornell.

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