Lecture_3 - Introduction to Sociology Part MacroPart I...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Sociology Part MacroPart I: Macro-level Social Phenomena Lecture 3: Specialization, Rationalization, Bureaucratization Monday, February 2 Herbert Herbert Spencer - English philosopher, political theorist - Coined the phrase, “survival of the fittest” Spencer - Wrote primarily in the area of evolutionary sociology sociology - Famous works include Social Statics, The Social Principles of Sociology, The Principles of Ethics (1820 – 1903) Evolutionary Evolutionary Sociology Organismic analogy - Society is an organic whole, made up of interrelated parts Social Darwinism - Societies evolve over time, like species Universal law - Evolution consists of “a change from a state of relatively indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a state of relatively definite coherent heterogeneity.” Elements Elements of Societal Evolution Militant Industrial Level of Complexity Homogeneous, Homogeneous, undifferentiated Heterogeneous, differentiated Basis of social ties Hierarchical, obligatory Contractual, voluntary Émile Émile Durkheim - French sociologist, held posts at the University of Bordeaux, the Sorbonne - Wrote in the areas of economic sociology, sociology of religion, sociology of law, crime - Famous works include The Division of Labour in The Society, Suicide, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life Durkheim (1858 – 1917) Social Solidarity, Pre-Specialization PreMechanical Mechanical solidarity: - A form of social solidarity, common to “traditional” societies, characterized by a feeling of kinship and camaraderie, common beliefs and values, and the prioritization prioritization of group over individual interests Collective conscience: - “The body of beliefs and sentiments common to the average of members of a society” - Emphasizes the primacy of society over the individual and his or her interests Solidarity Solidarity under Conditions of Specialization Organic solidarity: - A form of social solidarity, common to “modern” societies, that is characterized by mutual dependence on others for survival, enacted through social exchanges, and enforced through through education and law - May be stronger than mechanical solidarity because it is comprised of countless links that are difficult to disarticulate, and people’s survival depends on them Classical Model of Societal Evolution Differentiation Population growth growth Specialization Specialization Decrease in mechanical solidarity Interdependence Increase in organic solidarity Max Max Weber - Regarded by many as the most influential sociologist of the 20th century - German sociologist, held posts at the Universities of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Vienna, Munich - Wrote in the areas of economic sociology, sociology of religion, organizational sociology, sociology of law - Famous works include The Protestant Ethic and The the Spirit of Capitalism, Economy and Society Economy Weber (1864 – 1920) Rationalization Rationalization Rationalization Rationalization The deliberate process through which social activities become organized - Cause: Increasing reliance on instrumental rationality – instead of emotion, customs, or values – as the basis of social behavior - Involves: • the development of guidelines (codes, rules, laws) • the institution of regularities of action, routines • the breaking down of complex social behaviors into smaller, more manageable parts - Effect: The harmonization of social behavior, to facilitate cooperative, productive, efficient action within large populations Adam Adam Smith - Regarded by many as the most influential politicalpolitical-economist ever - Scottish moral philosopher and political economist, held a post at Glasgow University, and worked worked as a tutor - Famous works include The Theory of Moral The Sentiments, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations Smith (1720 – 1790) Capitalism Capitalism and Rationalization Reduce labor force Goal: maximize profit Reduce production costs Increase workers’ efficiency Decompose the production process Adopt new production technology Mass production Benefits: 1) Worker dexterity improves 2) Less time lost between steps 3) Easier for workers to spot potential improvements Bureaucratization Bureaucratization Bureaucracy - A body of administrative officials, and the procedures and tasks involved in a particular system of administration - Lays out who is responsible for what duties (division of labor) - Decisions made according to guidelines and rules, not personal judgment - Bureaucrats are exacting and impersonal - Promotion based on merit - Provides a clear, hierarchical authority structure Consequences Consequences of Rationalization and Bureaucratization - More efficient organization, production - Increased emphasis on meritocracy - Increased education and training - Self-perpetuating character Rationalization Bureaucratization the “iron cage” “the polar night of icy darkness” social leveling credentialism ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course SOC 1101 taught by Professor Mclaughlin during the Spring '07 term at Cornell.

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