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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Sociology Introduction to Sociology Part I: Macro-level Social Phenomena MacroLecture 4: Capitalism, Industry, and Post-Industrialization PostWednesday, February 4 Industrialization Industrialization
- The production of goods becomes accomplished through technology and machinery instead of manual physical labor - The primary productive activities of a society shift from agriculture to manufacturing
- Technological innovations - The agricultural revolution agricultural revolution - Urbanization Karl Karl Marx
Marx German political-economist, philosopher, and politicalsociologist Advocated the overthrow of capitalism in favor of communism, and for the establishment of classless communism, and for the establishment of a classless society society “Philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways - the point however is to change it.” Famous works include Manifesto of the Communist Manifesto Party Capital (Das Kapital) variety of other works Party, Capital (Das Kapital), a variety of other works on on the topics of philosophy and capitalism (1818 (1818 – 1883) - Friedrich Friedrich Engels
Engels German political-economist and philosopher politicalFrequent collaborator with Marx Also advocated the overthrow of capitalism in favor of communism, and for the establishment of a classless society Famous works include Manifesto of the Communist Famous works include Manifesto of the Communist Party, Party, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, also edited Marx’s Capital also Capital (1820 – 1895) - Capitalism Capitalism
- Wealth and the means of production (e.g., resources, tools) are privately owned and controlled - Goods, commodities and resources are exchanged in the context of a market economy - People own and can sell their own labor - According to Adam Smith and other political-economists, the politicalfree market system of capitalism is the best available means of increasing everyone’s wealth and productivity Marxian Marxian Criticisms of Capitalism
- Inequality between the “haves” and the “have-nots” increases “have- Wealth and the means of production are owned by the few (the bourgeoisie bourgeoisie), while the vast majority (the proletariat) own only their proletariat own labor - Proletarians are exploited by the bourgeoisie
- The exchange value of labor power (wage) is lower than the value it produces for the owners produces for the owners - Workers must sell their labor to survive, thus becoming commodities - Proletarians are alienated Proletarians are alienated
- From the objects of their labor - From the labor process each other - From each other PostPost-Industrial Society
- Shift from manufacturing to service economy - Preeminence of professional and technical class - The value of knowledge increases (e.g., intellectual property) value of knowledge increases (e intellectual property) - Planning and control of technological growth (e.g., patent law) - The rise of “new intellectual technology” (e.g., computers) Weberian Weberian Concerns
- Capitalism fuels rationalization
- Closer attention is paid to costs, gains - Specialization increases technology greater reliance on machines and - Bureaucratization increases (e.g., accounting) - Can ultimately lead to dehumanization, the destruction of tradition and values, cold calculability in everyday social interactions and selfishness interactions, and selfishness. ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course SOC 1101 taught by Professor Mclaughlin during the Spring '07 term at Cornell.
- Spring '07