Lecture_5 - Introduction to Sociology Part MacroPart I:...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Sociology Part MacroPart I: Macro-level Social Phenomena Lecture 5: Urbanization and Residential Segregation Monday, February 9 Key Terminology Urban Urban area Core census block group that has a population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile with surrounding census blocks that have an overall density of at least 500 people per square mile Urbanization The process by which an increasing proportion of the population comes to reside and/or work in urban areas Metropolis Metropolis A place comprised of at least one urban area that contains 50,000 people Georg Georg Simmel Simmel German philosopher and sociologist A friend of Max Weber Famous works include The Philosophy of Money and The The The Web of Group Affiliations, “The Metropolis and Mental Mental Life,” “The Triad,” and many other highly influential influential essays Influential in the development of social network analysis (1858 – 1918) - Psychosocial Psychosocial Effects of Urban Life - “Intensification of nervous stimulation” (i.e., sensory overload) - An increase in the prevalence of transitory, random encounters, which can lead to social exhaustion - Emergence of a defense mechanism in the form of a “blasé attitude,” attitude,” or feeling of reserve, toward others Negative Negative Consequences of Urban Life - Competition/conflict over resources (e.g., jobs, services, food) - Crowding - Greater risk of epidemics - Weakening of primary group ties - Reduced effectiveness of informal social control mechanisms (e.g., family, religion) crime and delinquency - Overstimulation/sensory overload - Development of blasé attitude, avoidance of others Jane Jane Jacobs Jacobs American-Canadian urban planner and urban Americanrenewal critic/activist Famous for defending the “chaos” and complexity of urban life against the rationalistic urban renewal projects of the 1950s Her most famous works are The Death and Life of The Great American Cities, also wrote The Economy of The Cities, both of which are on the (1916 (1916 – 2006) - What What Makes Urban Life Safer? - The coexistence of businesses and residences - “Eyes on the street” - The usage of sidewalks Positive Positive Consequences of Urban Life - Greater access to a wider variety of resources, producers/suppliers - More job opportunities, flexible labor markets - Collective goods - Greater personal safety - Increased social contact, development of neighbor networks - Blasé attitude encourages more cerebral approach to social interaction market exchange - Rationalization and order The The Spatial Distribution of People Segregation The physical or social separation of individuals belonging to different sociosocio-demographic categories such as race, sex, or social class Residential Residential segregation The The spatial separation of different class or race groups in different living areas The The Chicago Model of Urban Segregation - Why is there a negative correlation between individuals’ wealth and their proximity to the central business district? • First, migrants enter the city at its core (the “central business district”) • Next, as core businesses grow, these groups must expand into the outer outer segments of the city (the “zone in transition”) • In response, the wealthy move further out into the peripheries of the city (and lower-class groups take over their obsolete homes) lower- Racial Racial Residential Segregation The dissimilarity index: The percentage of members of a given group (e.g., AfricanAfricanAmericans) who would need to relocate to other (presumably “whiter”) neighborhoods in order to achieve a uniform distribution of of their group across all neighborhoods in a given place William William Julius Wilson Harvard Sociologist, focusing on issues at the intersection of segregation, race, poverty, and urban life Most famous works include The Declining The Significance of Race, The Truly Disadvantaged, When Work Work Disappears Takes an economic sociology approach to understanding racial residential segregation Wilson (1935 – ) - InnerInner-City Racial Residential Segregation - Economic transition (post-industrialization) hollows out the old (posturban manufacturing core - There emerges a preponderance of low-skilled workers who have lowno job prospects - Poverty thus becomes concentrated in the inner-city inner- Service sector jobs draw middle-class African-Americans into middleAfricansuburbs American American Apartheid - The root cause of the “black underclass” is long-standing racial longracial residential segregation - Low-skilled white workers were not trapped in the inner-city Lowinnerduring restructuring, as they had already left before restructuring occurred occurred - Before economic restructuring there was “white flight” from the urban core, not “middle-class black exodus” “middle- ...
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