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Lecture_9 - Introduction to Sociology Part Part II Agency...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Sociology Part Part II: Agency and Structure Lecture 9: Social Exchange Theory Monday, March 2 Social Social Exchange Theory - Examines non-material exchange (e.g., favors, sentiments, nonsymbols) - Often focuses on non-formal-market exchange non-formal- Recognizes the social motivations behind exchange behavior • Social norms • Status/power concerns - Emphasizes the social consequences of exchange • • • • Solidarity/commitment Emotion Degree of reciprocity, inequality Power Power/Dependence Power/Dependence in Exchange - Power (P): The amount of resistance on the part of A (e.g., (P): resistance to demands) which can be overcome by B - Dependence (D): 1) the extent to which A wants resources B possesses; and 2) the extent to which B is the only source of them A’s power is equal to B’s dependence: PAB = DBA before engaging in a - People assess relative power social exchange - When A loses power in an exchange, A will attempt to restore a balance of power with B Power Power Balancing Operations A decreases the subjective value of things offered by B A increases the number of alternative sources for what B has A increases the value of the things given to B A reduces B’s alternative sources of what A has Network Network Exchange Theory - Every social exchange occur within the context of larger social network - The consequences of a given exchange for A’s power depends on the presence/absence of alternative to B as an exchange partner - Exchanges often occur within larger chains, so that B’s ability to give give something to A often depends on B’s ability, at some earlier point, to get that thing from C Exchange Exchange Network Notation Elements of social exchange networks - Exchange actors: A set of A, B, C,…, n actors set - Different actors who have the same resource: A1, A2, A3 - Exchange relations: To indicate that A exchanges resources with B, we draw a line between them Reciprocal exchange: A NonNon-reciprocal exchange: A B B Unilateral Unilateral Monopoly B1 A B2 B3 Centrality Centrality B3 B2 A1 B4 B5 A2 B6 B7 B1 A3 B10 B9 B8 The decentralization proposition Generalized Generalized Exchange - Usually involves indirect reciprocity indirect reciprocity - Unfolds over time through a series of connected exchanges - Exchanges can be made between one actor and a pool of others pool - Works best with family members and friends because it requires requires trust ChainChain-Generalized Exchange Systems Open A B C D Closed A B D C NetNet-Generalized Exchange Systems IndividualIndividual-focused A,B,C A,B,D A,C,D B,C,D D, and C, and B, and A GroupGroup-focused A B C D B,C,D, and A,C,D, and A,B,D, and A,B,C ...
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