Lecture_9 - Introduction to Sociology Part Part II: Agency...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Sociology Part Part II: Agency and Structure Lecture 9: Social Exchange Theory Monday, March 2 Social Social Exchange Theory - Examines non-material exchange (e.g., favors, sentiments, nonsymbols) - Often focuses on non-formal-market exchange non-formal- Recognizes the social motivations behind exchange behavior • Social norms • Status/power concerns - Emphasizes the social consequences of exchange • • • • Solidarity/commitment Emotion Degree of reciprocity, inequality Power Power/Dependence Power/Dependence in Exchange - Power (P): The amount of resistance on the part of A (e.g., (P): resistance to demands) which can be overcome by B - Dependence (D): 1) the extent to which A wants resources B possesses; and 2) the extent to which B is the only source of them A’s power is equal to B’s dependence: PAB = DBA before engaging in a - People assess relative power social exchange - When A loses power in an exchange, A will attempt to restore a balance of power with B Power Power Balancing Operations A decreases the subjective value of things offered by B A increases the number of alternative sources for what B has A increases the value of the things given to B A reduces B’s alternative sources of what A has Network Network Exchange Theory - Every social exchange occur within the context of larger social network - The consequences of a given exchange for A’s power depends on the presence/absence of alternative to B as an exchange partner - Exchanges often occur within larger chains, so that B’s ability to give give something to A often depends on B’s ability, at some earlier point, to get that thing from C Exchange Exchange Network Notation Elements of social exchange networks - Exchange actors: A set of A, B, C,…, n actors set - Different actors who have the same resource: A1, A2, A3 - Exchange relations: To indicate that A exchanges resources with B, we draw a line between them Reciprocal exchange: A NonNon-reciprocal exchange: A B B Unilateral Unilateral Monopoly B1 A B2 B3 Centrality Centrality B3 B2 A1 B4 B5 A2 B6 B7 B1 A3 B10 B9 B8 The decentralization proposition Generalized Generalized Exchange - Usually involves indirect reciprocity indirect reciprocity - Unfolds over time through a series of connected exchanges - Exchanges can be made between one actor and a pool of others pool - Works best with family members and friends because it requires requires trust ChainChain-Generalized Exchange Systems Open A B C D Closed A B D C NetNet-Generalized Exchange Systems IndividualIndividual-focused A,B,C A,B,D A,C,D B,C,D D, and C, and B, and A GroupGroup-focused A B C D B,C,D, and A,C,D, and A,B,D, and A,B,C ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course SOC 1101 taught by Professor Mclaughlin during the Spring '07 term at Cornell.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online