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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Sociology Part Part II: Agency and Structure
Lecture 10: Social Control and Deviance
Wednesday, March 4 Social Social Control
Efforts to prevent certain behaviors and/or to ensure conformity to laws, rules, and norms - Internal: Individuals’ efforts to control their own behavior Individuals’ - External: Efforts by social agents to reward conformity and/or Efforts punish punish deviance (norm breaking)
• Informal: Person-on-person efforts to shape another’s behavior Person-on(e.g., frowning, friendly warnings, physical punishment) • Formal: Official institutional mechanisms (i.e., legislature, police force, judicial system, prison system) 5,000,000 4,500,000 4,000,000 NUMBER OF PEOPLE 3,500,000 Probation
3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 Prison
1,000,000 500,000 0 YEAR Formal Formal Social Control in Modern Society Growth of the law, and formal control bureaucracy Rationalization Specialization Weakening of primary group ties Weakening of informal social control Need for formal social control Urbanization Blasé attitude, indifference to strangers Deviance Deviance
- Behavior that is disapproved of to such an extent that it exceeds the tolerance of the community and can result in a sanction
• Crime and delinquency (e.g., graffiti) • Impoliteness, rudeness (e.g., talking loudly in a movie theatre), abnormal behavior - Few things are inherently deviant
• Deviance is a social construction • Defined, in part, by those who are in positions of power Sociological Sociological Explanations of Deviance
Strain – deviance results from efforts to adapt to a disjuncture between culturally prescribed goals and the availability of culturally approved means of achieving them Social control – deviance results from a lack of (informal and formal) social control Labeling – deviance results from the internalization of the “deviant” label and its associated stigma Differential association – deviance is learned from one’s closest contacts, so people who associate with deviants are the most likely to become deviant Rational choice – deviance results from a rational decision-making decisionprocess in which one compares the expected gains to the expected costs - - Deviance Deviance as Adaptation
Norms about how to accomplish goals how Accept Accept Reject Reject Norms about goals goals people people should accomplish Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism New means New goals Rebellion ...
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