Lecture_15 - Introduction Introduction to Sociology Part II...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction Introduction to Sociology Part II: Agency and Structure Lecture 14: Structure and and Emotion Wednesday, April 1 Structured Structured Emotion Unintentional structuring: - Capitalism leads to alienation, unhappiness, and frustration (Marx) - Social exchange outcomes affect mood (e.g., happiness, anger) Intentional structuring: - Governments shape emotions via propaganda - Certain occupations require workers to suppress/construct emotions occupations require workers to suppress/construct emotions - The news media cultivate emotion through a “discourse of fear” Arlie Arlie Hochschild - Currently a professor of sociology at the University of of California, Berkeley - Has developed theories of the impact of the workplace on emotion, and also of the highly wor th hi hl gendered gendered nature of the household division of labor - Influential works include: The Managed Heart: the Influential works include: The Managed Heart: the Commercialization Commercialization of Human Feeling (1983), The (1983), The Second Shift (1989), and The Time Bind (1997) (1989), The (1997) (1940 - ) Emotional Emotional Labor - Most common among service workers in post-industrial society post- Involves several forms of emotional regulation: emotional • Suppression – the self-censorship of emotions that don’t fit Suppression the self censorship of emotions that don fit expectations expectations • Acting (surface or deep) – faking emotions that one does not feel • Reappraising – altering how one sees events to avoid any emotional reaction News News Media and Fear - News organizations need to profit, which depends on their ability to maintain the interest of a large audience abilit - One way to maintain audience interest and concern is to focus on potential threats to safety/health, thus creating fear th t /h th • Focus coverage on fear-laden issues (e.g., crime, terrorism) fear• Focus on extreme or unusual cases on extreme or unusual cases • Sensationalism Emotions Emotions and Collective Outcomes - Emotional capital – when they are shared by members of a collectivity, emotions (e.g., anger) help to facilitate and collectivit perpetuate social movements - Emotional liability – collectivities may suffer setbacks as a li bilit result of counter-productive emotions (e.g., fear) counter- Agency Exchange power a result of strategy/decisions of strategy/decisions Rational choice Driven by individuals’ desire to survive Individuals’ grievances, goals, values, emotions Choice of certain roles and role models Intentionally manipulated by the actor Strategically controlled Structure Exchange power as network network-dependent A product of disjuncture between society’s goals and available means Presence of other people, social norms Structure of economy, organized religion Socialization by parents, media, and other agents Cooperation of audience, presence of a backstage Shaped by occupation, news media Combination Strategy depends on network network position Rational adaptation to structural constraint Survival strategies are developed with others Emotions/values shape movements movements movements, movements shape emotions/values Parents’ agency is a child’s structure Performances must be tailored to contexts Individuals’ emotions can affect movement success Social exchange power Deviance Disaster behavior Movement participation participation Socialization Impressions Emotions ...
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