Lecture_16 - Introduction Introduction to Sociology Part...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction Introduction to Sociology Part III: The Architecture of Society Lecture 16: Society as Networks Wednesday, April 8 April MacroMacro-Level Social Phenomena • • Population growth – resource scarcity, the role of subsistence technology, population composition (social demography, development sociology) Specialization/rationalization/bureaucratization – the division of labor, its consequences for social solidarity, the emergence of order and hierarchy (sociology of work, organizational sociology) Industrialization and post-industrialization – shift from agricultural then from postmanufacturing productive activities, changes in technology (economic sociology, development sociology) Urbanization and segregation – how people are spatially distributed (urban sociology, social demography) Power, inequality, and conflict unequal distribution of resources and its Power, inequality, and conflict – unequal distribution of resources and its consequences consequences (social stratification, political sociology) Discrimination – prejudicial/unfair treatment of people based on their attributes (sociology of race, gender studies, social stratification) (sociology of race, gender studies, social stratification) • • • • Agency Agency and Structure • • • • • • • • Microsociology – the study of social action Social exchange the trading of resources services favors sentiments and Social exchange – the trading of resources, services, favors, sentiments, and symbols, symbols, between people (economic sociology, network analysis) Social control and deviance – conformity to or breaching of norms and laws (criminology sociology of law) (criminology, sociology of law) Collective behavior I: Crowds and disasters – participation in group/crowd behavior, disaster evacuation (political sociology, sociology of disasters) Collective behavior II: Social movements – organized, pre-planned forms of precollective behavior (soc of religion, political sociology, social movements) Socialization – the learning of social roles, behaviors, identities (social psychology, gender studies, criminology) Impression management – the control of one’s own behavior to make certain impressions (symbolic interactionism, social psychology) Structure and emotion – the influence of social conditions on emotion (sociology of emotion, social psychology) Residential segregation in Milwaukee Residential segregation in Mil Hi High School Friendship Network (Yellow = white, Green = black, Pink = other) Grade Grade School Friendship Network The The Power Elite America’s political, military, and economic leaders comprise a political military and economic leaders comprise cohesive “power elite” that controls the country: • They have become more powerful as their organizations They have become more powerful as their organizations increase increase in size and become more centralized • They are highly interconnected in society and business Snapshot Snapshot of the board interlock network The The Social Networks Perspective - Society is constituted through a set of actors and their connections to each other in larger networks, or webs connections • • Social actors – entities that engage in social action, including individuals, firms, and other organizations Social ties – connections that exist between actors (e.g., family ties, friendship, exchange, co-membership in organizations, affectual corelations) relations) - Core assumption: The structure of social networks is consequential for the actors who are caught up in them Connections Connections among contacts in Friendster, up to 3 steps out from a single user Connections Connections among popular blogs over a bl period of six weeks Microscopic Microscopic snapshot of internet connectivity, with selected ISPs colored separately The The Architecture of Society • • • Society as networks – seeing social structures and phenomena in terms of sets of actors, the ties between them, and the larger webs they create Social network analysis – the science of analyzing social webs (matrix algebra, graph theory, computational social science) Network properties and positions – aspects of social networks that are th consequential for social processes (political sociology, social epidemiology, economic sociology) sociology) Social capital and homophily – the value of social connections to individuals and communities, similarities among contacts (economic sociology, political sociology, social stratification, medical sociology) Social influence and diffusion – how ideas, behaviors, and resources spread through networks (social epidemiology, social psychology, sociology of technology) Small worlds – properties of large networks that facilitate influence and diffusion (physics, biology, sociology of technology) technology) • • • ...
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