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Lecture_19 - Introduction Introduction to Sociology Part...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction Introduction to Sociology Part III: The Architecture of Society Lecture 19: Social Capital and Homophily and Homophily Monday, April 20 April 20 IndividualIndividual-Level Social Capital - Bonding social capital: Resources that arise from an individual’s embeddedness in a cohesive group • Trust • Social support - Bridging social capital: Resources that arise from an individual’s bridging of poorly connected actors or groups • Brokerage potential • Power • Independence Acquaintance Acquaintance network for Soc 1101, Spring 09 Cutpoints Cutpoints in acquaintance network Network Network for Soc 1101, Fall 08 and Spring 09 (Dark blue = Spring 09, Light blue = Fall 08) CommunityCommunity-Level Social Capital - Benefits communities experience from members’ individual social ti ties to each other - Network ties within homogenous networks (e.g., kin) pockets of trust pockets of trust isolated isolated - Network ties between groups more dialogue, barriers break between more down understanding between groups increases fewer factions down, understanding between groups increases fewer factions more more effective democracy - Increases via individuals’ participation in community events, voluntary voluntary associations, and local organizations Homophily Homophily The principle that contact between similar people occurs at a higher rate than contact between dissimilar people th di Status homophily: Similarity with respect to some attribute, usually a socio socio-demographic characteristic characteristic • Race/ethnicity • Sex/gender (especially at younger ages) • Education, occupation, and social class occupation and social class • Age - Value homophily: Similarity with respect to values, beliefs, or opinions • Religious views • Political persuasion Measures Measures of Homophily - The proportion of one’s network members who possess the same attribute (e.g., race) that one possesses - The extent to which one’s network members are similar to each each other with respect to a given attribute with where cx = number of network members in category x, j = total number of categories, and k = total number of network members Consequences Consequences of Homophily - Perpetuation of status differences across groups - Perpetuation of stereotypes - Stagnation of uniqueness and creativity - Mechanical solidarity - Increased bonding social capital, decreased bridging social capital ...
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