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# slides1a (2) - Parallel Computing and Parallel Computers...

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1a.1 Parallel Computing and Parallel Computers ITCS 4/5145 Parallel Programming UNC-Charlotte, B. Wilkinson, 2010. June 28, 2010

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1a.2 Parallel Computing Using more than one computer, or a computer with more than one processor, to solve a problem. Motives Usually faster computation. Very simple idea n computers operating simultaneously can achieve the result faster it will not be n times faster for various reasons Other motives include: fault tolerance, larger amount of memory available, . ..
1a.3 Demand for Computational Speed Continual demand for greater computational speed from a computer system than is currently possible Areas requiring great computational speed include: Numerical modeling Simulation of scientific and engineering problems. Computations need to be completed within a “reasonable” time period.

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1a.4 Grand Challenge Problems Ones that cannot be solved in a reasonable amount of time with today’s computers. Obviously, an execution time of 10 years is always unreasonable. Grand Challenge Problem Examples Modeling large DNA structures Global weather forecasting Modeling motion of astronomical bodies.
1a.5 Weather Forecasting Atmosphere modeled by dividing it into 3- dimensional cells. Calculations of each cell repeated many times to model passage of time. Temperature, pressure, humidity, etc.

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Global Weather Forecasting Example Suppose whole global atmosphere divided into cells of size 1 mile × 1 mile × 1 mile to a height of 10 miles (10 cells high) - about 5 × 10 8 cells. Suppose each calculation requires 200 floating point operations. In one time step, 10 11 floating point operations necessary. To forecast the weather over 7 days using 1-minute intervals, a computer operating at 1Gflops (10 9 floating point operations/s) takes 10 6 seconds or over 10 days . To perform calculation in
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slides1a (2) - Parallel Computing and Parallel Computers...

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