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review final - .25.25.25.25.25.25 Biodiversity.5 1.5.5.5...

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.5 .5 1 .5 .5 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25 Biodiversity What is Biodiversity? It is the variety of ecosystems, species, populations within species, and genetic diversity among and within these populations. Why is it important? It is important for the resources we use (bioresources), for the ecosystem services it provides, for the pleasure we derive from living organisms (aesthetic) and for ethical reasons. Stochastic Factors- Demographic stochasticity- unfavorable death rates or population Genetic stochasticity- chance occurrence of unfavorable genetic circumstances Inbreeding depression- reduced fitness Environmental stochasticity- unusual levels of predation, parasitism, disease, etc. Natural catastrophes- floods, fires, droughts, heat/cold Levels of Biodiversity: Genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity Genetic Diversity- raw materials for selection and adaptation. Higher vs. lower
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Higher- greater chance some individual can adapt to changing environment. Lower- uniformity or homozygosity High environment variability associated with higher genetic diversity Species diversity (most studies) Species richness- number of species Evenness- what extent are individuals distributed among species Differences- relatedness Ecosystem Diversity - species distributions of communities and patterns, role and function of key species, interactions between species (alpha diversity)- α within ecosystems (beta diversity)- β between ecosystems (gamma diversity)- γ across large geographical scale Evolution (biological or organic) What is it?
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